Expression patterns of
genes under abiotic stress and hormone treatments. Four-leaf-stage Chinese cabbage plants were given various treatments, including (A) cold, (B) osmotic stress, (C) ABA and (D) auxin, under a continuous time course (0, 12, 24, 48, and 96 h). qPCR data were normalized using BrGAPDH. Results are the means ± standard deviation (SD) of three independent experiments.