LOXD promoter (pLOXD)–GUS expression in transgenic tomato hairy root line infected with
second-stage juveniles (J2s). Noninfected control roots harboring the pLOXD–GUS fusion construct (A, C, E) show GUS staining of the root tip and vascular cylinder. Infected roots harboring pLOXD–GUS (B, D) show a decrease in GUS signal at 2 and 5 DAI. However, at 15 DAI (E), GUS signal is observed in the center of the developing gall in the giant cell area induced by the invading nematodes. (A–E) Light micrographs as viewed under a light microscope. (F) Bright-field image of galls photographed using a stereomicroscope. Bars: A–E = 100 μm, F = 1000 μm. Differential expression of LOXD in OE roots compared with Kan roots obtained in the RNA-Seq data is shown at the bottom of the table.