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Table 1 Preclinical minipig responses and clinical human responses of marketed drugs

From: Functional analysis and transcriptional output of the Göttingen minipig genome

Drug Indication Drug target Gene Minipig Human Interspecies target similarity
     Systemic responses Dermal response Systemic responses Dermal response
Pimecrolimus Atopic dermatitis Calcineurin FKBP1A / PPP3CA low thymus weight none none mild itching 95.4 % / 94.6 %
     arteritis   -   
     lymphocytes accumulation   -   
     lung lymphoid tissue increase   -   
Everolimus Immuno-suppression mTOR protein kinase FKBP1A / MTOR Diarrhea n.a. Diarrhea n.a. 95.4 % / 99.6 %
     Dermatitis   Stomatitis   
     Sedation   Sedation   
     Weak limbs   Weak limbs   
     Slow breathing   Slow breathing   
     Bloody feces   -   
Tretinoin Acne treatment Retinoic acid receptors RXRB/G n.a. Erythema n.a. Erythema 98.5 % / 99.1 %
  Acute myeloid leukemia    -   Itching  
Determir insulin Diabetes Insulin receptor INSR n.a. reversible local reactions n.a. reversible local reactions ~99.7 %a
Alendronate Osteoporosis farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase FDPS increased bone turnover in ovariectomized minipgs n.a. increased bone turnover in post-menopausal women n.a. 93.8 %
Meloxicam Rheumatic Arthritis prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 PTGS2 Gastric ulcers n.a. Gastric ulcers n.a. >94 %a
     Chronic bronchopneumonia   Asthma, dyspnea, bronchospasm   
     Lethargy   Fatigue   
Carvedilol Hyper-tension adrenic receptor family ADRB1/2 Cardioprotection n.a. Cardioprotection n.a. ~89.3 %
    ADRA1A/1B Reduction of infarct size   Reduction of infarct size   96.4 % / 98.7 %
  1. afull minipig sequence not available
  2. Response data were taken were taken from pre-clinical minipig drug safety toxicology studies or from public clinical trial databases. The interspecies target similarity was calculated based on protein sequence alignment