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Table 1 Some key milestones in genomics, genetics, and exercise biology

From: Why nature prevails over nurture in the making of the elite athlete

1971 Vassilis Klissouras/Twin Studies of \( \overset{\cdotp }{\mathrm{V}}{\mathrm{O}}_2\max \) [17]
1984 Claude Bouchard/Twin Studies of trainability of \( \overset{\cdotp }{\mathrm{V}}{\mathrm{O}}_2\max \) [43]
1999 Claude Bouchard/Heritage Family Study [44]
2000 Hugh Montgomery/Candidate Gene Approach – ACE [49]
2001 The Human Genome Project - Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome (
2003 The ENCODE Project – large public research consortium aimed at identifying all functional elements in the human genome sequence (
2003 Kathy North/ACTN3 Speed Gene [50]
2007 Yannis Pitsiladis/Genetics of East African Runners [45]
2008 The 1000 Genomes Project – the largest public catalogue containing human variation and genotype data (
2016 GAMES/The first GWAS of athletic performance [52]
2016 The Athlome Project – call for international collaborated efforts in genetic discovery for elite human performance, muscle injury prevention and adaptive training [53]
  1. *see Bouchard and Malina, 2014 [66] for a detailed account of the history of genomics, genetics, and exercise biology