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Table 3 Summary interpretation of the differential gene expression analysis. The characterization of the biological processes relies on the gene ontology enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes. Feminization and masculinization represent the situation where few genes (< 100) are detected as differentially expressed, under EE2 treatment, in comparison to control female or control male, respectively. See Additional file 1: Figure S4 and Tables S1-S5 for more detailed information

From: Sex-specific changes in gene expression in response to estrogen pollution around the onset of sex differentiation in grayling (Salmonidae)

Developmental stage Sex differences in gene expression a EE2-effects in males EE2- effects in females
Embryos Weak ~ 1% of the genes are affected, some related to the development of the nervous system. None detected.
Hatchlings Strong Up to 18% of the genes are affected, enriched in association to muscle and connective tissues. Possible transient feminization. Up to half of the genes are affected. Possible masculinization.
Juveniles Strong A few genes only are affected. Up to 25% of the genes are affected, enriched in association to insulin metabolism and heart development. Possible masculinization persists.
  1. a Results from Maitre et al. [26]