Method | Scenario^{b} | \( {\sigma}_g^2 \)(\( {\sigma}_{\varepsilon}^2 \)) | \( {\sigma}_e^2 \) | \( {\sigma}_{\alpha}^2\sum \limits_{j=1}^m2{p}_j\left(1-{p}_j\right) \) | *h*^{2c} |
---|

True VCs in P-base | | 3.59 (0.03) | 5.05 (0.09) | – | 0.42 (0.004) |

True VCs in G-base | | 2.82 (0.09) | 5.10 (0.07) | – | 0.36 (0.009) |

P-AM | Pheno_{1} | 3.62 (0.12) | 5.02 (0.02) | – | 0.42 (0.009) |

Pheno_{1 + 2} | 3.52 (0.06) | 5.07 (0.03) | – | 0.41 (0.004) |

Pheno_{2} | 3.19 (0.20)^{*} | 5.21 (0.10) | – | 0.38 (0.018)^{*} |

ssGBLUP | Pheno_{1} | 2.99 (0.12)^{***} | 5.54 (0.01)^{***} | – | 0.35 (0.009)^{***} |

Pheno_{1 + 2} | 3.39 (0.06)^{***} | 5.17 (0.03) | – | 0.40 (0.009)^{***} |

Pheno_{2} | 3.36 (0.15)^{***} | 5.19 (0.05) | – | 0.39 (0.013)^{*} |

ssBR | Pheno_{1} | 3.44 (0.15) | 5.10 (0.04) | 4.20 (0.10)^{***} | 0.40 (0.012) |

Pheno_{1 + 2} | 3.14 (0.10)^{***} | 5.24 (0.02)^{*} | 3.71 (0.11) | 0.37 (0.008)^{***} |

Pheno_{2} | 2.99 (0.20) | 5.27 (0.06)^{**} | 2.97 (0.09) | 0.36 (0.017) |

^{a}P-AM: traditional pedigree-based animal model; ssGBLUP: single-step genomic BLUP; ssBR: single-step Bayesian regression. \( {\sigma}_g^2 \) is the genetic variance used in P-AM, \( {\sigma}_{\varepsilon}^2 \) is the total genetic variance used in ssBR; \( {\sigma}_e^2 \) is the residual variance; \( {\sigma}_{\alpha}^2 \) is the marker variance; \( {\sigma}_{\alpha}^2\sum \limits_{j=1}^m2{p}_j\left(1-{p}_j\right) \) is used to calculate genetic variance via the estimated marker variance in ssBR, where *p*_{j} is the observed allele frequency at locus *j*, and m is the total number of markers^{b}Pheno_{1}: phenotypes from only the conventional phase (1–20 years) were used; Pheno_{1 + 2}: phenotypes from both the conventional phase and genomic selection phase (1–35 years) were used; Pheno_{2}: phenotypes from only the genomic selection phase were used (21–35 years)^{c}Heritabilities (*h*^{2}) from P-AM, ssGBLUP, and ssBR calculated as \( \frac{\sigma_{g\left(\varepsilon \right)}^2}{\left({\sigma}_{g\left(\varepsilon \right)}^2+{\sigma}_e^2\right)} \)- The significance test was performed to determine whether the estimated parameter differs from the simulated parameter.
^{*} significant at *P* < 0.01; ^{**} significant at *P* < 0.005; ^{***} significant at *P* < 0.001