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Table 1 Analysis of variance and heritability (h2) of the 16 phenotypic traits in the defined Senegalese pearl millet core collection. DF = degree of freedom, DMI = downy mildew, HTM = 50% heading time, FLO = 50% flowering time, NTN = nodal tillering, ILE = internode length, MSD = main stem diameter, PHE = plant height, NPT = tillering, FLL = flag leaf length, FLW = flag leaf width, SLE = spike length, STH = spike thickness, SWE = 1000 seed weight, PEX = panicle exertion, BMS = biomass, and GYI = grain yield. Significance: * P-value < 0.05, ** P-value < 0.01, *** P-value < 0.001, NS = Not significant

From: GWAS unveils features between early- and late-flowering pearl millets

  DF DM HT FLO NPT NTN IL FLL FLW MSD PH SL ST PE SW Biomass GY
Genotype effect 90 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** ** NS *** *** *** *** NS * **
Year effect 1 NS NS NS ** *** NS * NS *** NS NS *** NS *** *** **
Genotype x Year   NS *** *** NS * ** * * *** *** * * NS *** *** ***
Means   0.03 56.37 60.68 6.36 9.33 21.11 46.09 4.59 4.19 241.62 48.9 8.43 3.15 5.84 1528.39 1637.49
Strd deviation   0.07 12.27 12.68 2.16 2.19 1.93 6.53 0.66 1.6 39.11 9.35 1.21 3.16 1.44 1114.7 1112.15
h2   0.69 0.97 0.98 0.86 0.96 0.68 0.62 0.6 0.23 0.94 0.9 0.84 0.71 0 0.42 0.55