- Open Access
ArachnoServer: a database of protein toxins from spiders
© Wood et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2009
Received: 13 March 2009
Accepted: 13 August 2009
Published: 13 August 2009
Venomous animals incapacitate their prey using complex venoms that can contain hundreds of unique protein toxins. The realisation that many of these toxins may have pharmaceutical and insecticidal potential due to their remarkable potency and selectivity against target receptors has led to an explosion in the number of new toxins being discovered and characterised. From an evolutionary perspective, spiders are the most successful venomous animals and they maintain by far the largest pool of toxic peptides. However, at present, there are no databases dedicated to spider toxins and hence it is difficult to realise their full potential as drugs, insecticides, and pharmacological probes.
We have developed ArachnoServer, a manually curated database that provides detailed information about proteinaceous toxins from spiders. Key features of ArachnoServer include a new molecular target ontology designed especially for venom toxins, the most up-to-date taxonomic information available, and a powerful advanced search interface. Toxin information can be browsed through dynamic trees, and each toxin has a dedicated page summarising all available information about its sequence, structure, and biological activity. ArachnoServer currently manages 567 protein sequences, 334 nucleic acid sequences, and 51 protein structures.
ArachnoServer provides a single source of high-quality information about proteinaceous spider toxins that will be an invaluable resource for pharmacologists, neuroscientists, toxinologists, medicinal chemists, ion channel scientists, clinicians, and structural biologists. ArachnoServer is available online at http://www.arachnoserver.org.
The realisation that many venomous creatures possess a complex repertoire of protein toxins with pharmacological, pharmaceutical, and agrochemical applications has led to an exponential increase in the number of new toxins being discovered . Several electronic databases have been established to capture information about subsets of these toxins, such as ConoServer  and SCORPION2 , which provide information about toxins from marine cone snails and scorpions, respectively. Other databases provide information about all groups of animal toxins, such as Tox-Prot  and the Animal Toxin Database (ATDB) . These databases allow cross-comparison of toxins from different animal groups but the individual toxin records typically lack the rich information content of manually curated databases.
Spiders are by far the largest group of venomous animals, with more than 40,000 extant species , and they maintain the largest repertoire of pharmacologically active peptides . Some spider toxins have been used for almost two decades as pharmacological tools to probe the structure and function of ion channels and cell-surface receptors [8, 9]. Other spider toxins are being developed as bioinsecticides [10–12] or providing leads for the development of drugs to treat a diverse range of pathophysiological states such as inflammatory and neuropathic pain , cardiac arrhythmia , and erectile dysfunction . Remarkably, despite the incredible chemical diversity of spider venoms, there are no curated databases that deal specifically with proteinaceous toxins from these animals. Here we introduce ArachnoServer, a database designed to provide detailed and easily accessible information on the sequence, three-dimensional structure, and biological activity of spider toxins.
Construction and content
Data sources and integration
A non-redundant set of publicly available spider toxin sequences was sourced from Swiss-Prot  and GenBank , while experimentally determined protein structures were obtained from the Protein Data Bank . Taxonomic information on spiders (Araneae) was retrieved from the World Spider Catalog , which has the advantage of providing more up-to-date taxonomy than NCBI, as well as historic taxonomic information that can be used in database searches. As the World Spider Catalog is under constant revision, care was taken to ensure future compatibility of the ArachnoServer data model with this catalog. Each species in ArachnoServer is assigned a unique life science identifier (LSID) which is linked to the equivalent LSID in an electronic version of the World Spider Catalog. In this way, the ArachnoServer database is automatically linked to taxonomic updates within the World Spider Catalog. High-resolution images of spiders, which are provided without restriction for academic use, were obtained from private collectors and have been used only in cases where both the species and sex could be verified.
A key feature of ArachnoServer is the molecular target ontology. The majority of spider toxins act on ion channels and cell-surface receptors , and consequently we developed a new molecular target ontology based on the channel and receptor subtype definitions and nomenclature recommended by the International Union of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology . Additional descriptors were added for toxins that target invertebrate ion channels and receptors, cytolytic toxins, lectins, toxins that target enzymes, and toxins with enzymatic activity. This new ontology allows for the first time the retrieval of spider toxin information based on a precise definition of toxin specificity. For example, this ontology makes it facile to search the database for toxins that target a specific subtype of vertebrate ion channel or receptor. Finally, spider toxins often present diverse posttranslational modifications, and these are described in ArachnoServer using an ontology derived from ConoServer .
Where appropriate, extra information from the literature was added to each imported toxin record and additional citations were incorporated using the PubMed EFetch service. Year of discovery was carefully curated according to the date on which a manuscript describing the sequence was first submitted for publication, or the date when the toxin sequence was first submitted to GenBank or SWISS-PROT or appeared in the patent literature; this information is often incorrect in the source databases. Toxins were assigned recommended names according to the recently described rational nomenclature for spider toxins  and all available literature synonyms were also attached to each toxin record.
ArachnoServer provides the ability to curate information specific to a particular toxin as well as data that are generically applicable. For example, curators can create, edit, or delete symbols and names for posttranslational modifications. Data sets available for curation include lists of posttranslational modifications, biological activities, sequence features (e.g., signal and propeptide sequences), the molecular target ontology, common names and images of spiders, and even the units used to describe LD50, PD50, and IC50 values. The types of experimental evidence for disulfide bonds and toxin pharmacophores (e.g., experimentally determined, by homology, or predicted) can also be managed by the curation team. This inherent flexibility should allow the database to grow in both size and functionality as the knowledge base about spider toxins continues to expand.
ArachnoServer is a Java Spring Model View Controller (MVC) application that uses a Hibernate Object Relational Mapping (ORM) layer to a MySQL database. All database tables are mapped to Plain Old Java Object (POJO) serializable beans. Hibernate manages the writing, updating, and deleting of data from the database tables according to changes in the POJO data, instigated by events triggered from the view and propagated through to the Spring service layer. Using the Spring architecture with ORM mapping, the application and data model can be easily extended or modified, as changes to the data model do not require SQL changes (Hibernate transparently creates all SQL statements using mapped POJOs).
Utility and discussion
Interface and visualisation
Basic and advanced searches
ArachnoServer supports basic searches and advanced searches. Basic searches query toxin names (including synonyms), taxonomic information (including historic taxonomy), common names of spiders, and toxin families. Basic searches can be performed from every page using the search bar in the ArachnoServer banner.
The advanced search feature provides a convenient way for scientists to locate records of immediate interest. For example, a medicinal chemist or microbiologist focused on infectious diseases might be particularly interested in toxins that have antimicrobial activity. Using the advanced search feature to search for toxins with antimicrobial activity reveals that the database currently contains 39 such toxins (Fig. 3A). However, this search could be restricted according to many different criteria, such as the year of discovery, activity against specific bacteria or parasites, or the number of disulfide bonds and posttranslational modifications in the toxin. For example, adding a requirement for activity against Escherichia coli limits the search result to 11 toxins (Fig. 3B). The medicinal chemist might be particularly interested in the subset of these toxins for which a 3D structure has been determined. Adding this criterion limits the search result to two toxins (Fig. 3C), for which the 3D structure can then be viewed from the individual spider toxin records.
Sequence similarity searches
Similarity searches using BLAST  are available through the BLAST page and also from each of the sequence records in the STR page. Both protein and nucleic databases can be searched using the programs blastn, blastp, blastx, tblastn, and tblastx. Hits from toxins in the database are linked directly from the BLAST result page to the STR cards in ArachnoServer, and, where available, back to the original sources in GenBank or Swiss-Prot.
ArachnoServer is a web-based resource that provides comprehensive information about protein toxins from spider venoms. The combination of specific classification schemes and a rich user interface allows researchers to easily locate and view information on the sequence, structure, and biological activity of these toxins. This manually curated database will be a valuable resource for both basic researchers as well as those interested in potential pharmaceutical and agricultural applications of spider toxins.
Availability and requirements
ArachnoServer is freely available at http://www.arachnoserver.org. ArachnoServer is platform independent and supports most browsers including Firefox (Version 3 and higher), Safari (Ver. 3.2 and higher), Google Chrome (Ver. 1 and higher), Internet Explorer (Ver. 7 and higher), and Opera (Ver. 9.6 and higher). A java plug-in is required in order to view 3D protein structures.
This work was supported by Discovery Grant DP0774245 from the Australian Research Council to G.F.K. and a Queensland State Government National and International Alliances Program Grant to QFAB. We thank Nick Peall for design of the ArachnoServer skin, Dominique Gorse for project assistance, and Bastian Rast for high-resolution spider images.
- King GF, Gentz MC, Escoubas P, Nicholson GM: A rational nomenclature for naming peptide toxins from spiders and other venomous animals. Toxicon. 2008, 52: 264-276. 10.1016/j.toxicon.2008.05.020.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kaas Q, Westermann JC, Halai R, Wang CK, Craik DJ: ConoServer, a database for conopeptide sequences and structures. Bioinformatics. 2008, 24: 445-446. 10.1093/bioinformatics/btm596.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tan PT, Veeramani A, Srinivasan KN, Ranganathan S, Brusic V: SCORPION2: a database for structure-function analysis of scorpion toxins. Toxicon. 2006, 47: 356-363. 10.1016/j.toxicon.2005.12.001.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jungo F, Bairoch A: Tox-Prot, the toxin protein annotation program of the Swiss-Prot protein knowledgebase. Toxicon. 2005, 45: 293-301. 10.1016/j.toxicon.2004.10.018.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- He QY, He QZ, Deng XC, Yao L, Meng E, Liu ZH, Liang SP: ATDB: a uni-database platform for animal toxins. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008, 36: D293-D297. 10.1093/nar/gkm832.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Platnick NI: Advances in spider taxonomy, 1992–1995: with redescriptions 1940–1980. 1997, New York: New York Entomological Society & The American Museum of Natural History, [http://research.amnh.org/entomology/spiders/catalog/]Google Scholar
- Escoubas P, Sollod BL, King GF: Venom landscapes: mining the complexity of spider venoms via a combined cDNA and mass spectrometric approach. Toxicon. 2006, 47: 650-663. 10.1016/j.toxicon.2006.01.018.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Adams ME: Agatoxins: ion channel specific toxins from the American funnel web spider, Agelenopsis aperta. Toxicon. 2004, 43: 509-525. 10.1016/j.toxicon.2004.02.004.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ushkaryov YA, Volynski KE, Ashton AC: The multiple actions of black widow spider toxins and their selective use in neurosecretion studies. Toxicon. 2004, 43: 527-542. 10.1016/j.toxicon.2004.02.008.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tedford HW, Sollod BL, Maggio F, King GF: Australian funnel-web spiders: master insecticide chemists. Toxicon. 2004, 43: 601-618. 10.1016/j.toxicon.2004.02.010.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fitches E, Edwards MG, Mee C, Grishin E, Gatehouse AM, Edwards JP, Gatehouse JA: Fusion proteins containing insect-specific toxins as pest control agents: snowdrop lectin delivers fused insecticidal spider venom toxin to insect haemolymph following oral ingestion. J Insect Physiol. 2004, 50: 61-71. 10.1016/j.jinsphys.2003.09.010.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Khan SA, Zafar Y, Briddon RW, Malik KA, Mukhtar Z: Spider venom toxin protects plants from insect attack. Transgenic Res. 2006, 15: 349-357. 10.1007/s11248-006-0007-2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mazzuca M, Heurteaux C, Alloui A, Diochot S, Baron A, Voilley N, Blondeau N, Escoubas P, Gelot A, Cupo A, et al: A tarantula peptide against pain via ASIC1a channels and opioid mechanisms. Nat Neurosci. 2007, 10: 943-945. 10.1038/nn1940.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bode F, Sachs F, Franz MR: Tarantula peptide inhibits atrial fibrillation. Nature. 2001, 409: 35-36. 10.1038/35051165.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nunes KP, Costa-Gonçalves A, Lanza LF, Cortes SF, Cordeiro MN, Richardson M, Pimenta AM, Webb RC, Leite R, De Lima ME: Tx2-6 toxin of the Phoneutria nigriventer spider potentiates rat erectile function. Toxicon. 2008, 51: 1197-1206. 10.1016/j.toxicon.2008.02.010.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Boeckmann B, Bairoch A, Apweiler R, Blatter MC, Estreicher A, Gasteiger E, Martin MJ, Michoud K, O'Donovan C, Phan I, et al: The SWISS-PROT protein knowledgebase and its supplement TrEMBL in 2003. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003, 31: 365-370. 10.1093/nar/gkg095.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Benson DA, Karsch-Mizrachi I, Lipman DJ, Ostell J, Wheeler DL: GenBank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008, 36: D25-D30. 10.1093/nar/gkm929.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000, 28: 235-242. 10.1093/nar/28.1.235.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sollod BL, Wilson D, Zhaxybayeva O, Gogarten JP, Drinkwater R, King GF: Were arachnids the first to use combinatorial peptide libraries?. Peptides. 2005, 26: 131-139. 10.1016/j.peptides.2004.07.016.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Alexander SPH, Mathie A, Peters JA: Guide to receptors and channels (GRAC), (2008). Br J Pharmacol. 2008, 153 (Suppl 2): S1-S209. 10.1038/sj.bjp.0707746. 3PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Altschul SF, Madden TL, Schaffer AA, Zhang J, Zhang Z, Miller W, Lipman DJ: Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs. Nucleic Acids Res. 1997, 25: 3389-3402. 10.1093/nar/25.17.3389.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.