- Research article
- Open Access
De novo characterization of the Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) transcriptome and analysis of candidate genes involved in cellulose and lignin biosynthesis
© Huang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012
Received: 24 April 2012
Accepted: 6 November 2012
Published: 21 November 2012
Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) is an important timber species that accounts for 20–30% of the total commercial timber production in China. However, the available genomic information of Chinese fir is limited, and this severely encumbers functional genomic analysis and molecular breeding in Chinese fir. Recently, major advances in transcriptome sequencing have provided fast and cost-effective approaches to generate large expression datasets that have proven to be powerful tools to profile the transcriptomes of non-model organisms with undetermined genomes.
In this study, the transcriptomes of nine tissues from Chinese fir were analyzed using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 sequencing platform. Approximately 40 million paired-end reads were obtained, generating 3.62 gigabase pairs of sequencing data. These reads were assembled into 83,248 unique sequences (i.e. Unigenes) with an average length of 449 bp, amounting to 37.40 Mb. A total of 73,779 Unigenes were supported by more than 5 reads, 42,663 (57.83%) had homologs in the NCBI non-redundant and Swiss-Prot protein databases, corresponding to 27,224 unique protein entries. Of these Unigenes, 16,750 were assigned to Gene Ontology classes, and 14,877 were clustered into orthologous groups. A total of 21,689 (29.40%) were mapped to 119 pathways by BLAST comparison against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. The majority of the genes encoding the enzymes in the biosynthetic pathways of cellulose and lignin were identified in the Unigene dataset by targeted searches of their annotations. And a number of candidate Chinese fir genes in the two metabolic pathways were discovered firstly. Eighteen genes related to cellulose and lignin biosynthesis were cloned for experimental validating of transcriptome data. Overall 49 Unigenes, covering different regions of these selected genes, were found by alignment. Their expression patterns in different tissues were analyzed by qRT-PCR to explore their putative functions.
A substantial fraction of transcript sequences was obtained from the deep sequencing of Chinese fir. The assembled Unigene dataset was used to discover candidate genes of cellulose and lignin biosynthesis. This transcriptome dataset will provide a comprehensive sequence resource for molecular genetics research of C. lanceolata.
Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook), an evergreen conifer belonging to the Cupressaceae family, is native to southern China and is also distributed in northern Vietnam. Because it is fast growing, has desirable wood properties and is high yielding, it has been widely cultivated for over 3000 years. Chinese fir accounts for 20–30% of the total commercial timber production in China .
The systematic breeding of Chinese fir, begun in the 1960s, including the provenance test, cross-breeding and clonal selection, has achieved remarkable successes. A large number of elite germplasms have been collected, and first, second and third generation seed orchards have been established. However, some biological characteristics inherent in Chinese fir, such as long generation time, great tree height, high genetic load and inbreeding depression , have seriously hindered progress in the nurturing of new varieties through conventional improved technologies. Modern molecular biology presents a novel approach and strategy to accelerate the genetic improvement of Chinese fir by molecular breeding programs based on deciphering the molecular genetic basis of target traits. In contrast to the successful application of molecular breeding in crop species, such as rice, corn and cotton, because of the lack of genomic information and genetic tools, similar research in Chinese fir still lags behind.
Wood formation is an essential but highly complicated biological process derived from plant secondary growth in woody plants. In previous studies, the expression profiles of wood formation have been characterized by EST (expressed sequence tags) sequencing and microarry hybridization in poplar [3–6], Eucalyptus [7, 8], Pinus [9, 10] and spruce . Some structural genes and important transcription regulators involved in secondary growth were also identified, such as genes encoding the key enzymes in monolignol and cellulose biosynthetic pathways (reviewed in [12–15]), R2R3-MYB transcription factors and NAM/ATAF/CUC (NAC) family genes (reviewed in [16, 17]). In Chinese fir, there were few reports on molecular mechanism of wood formation. For example, several hundreds of ESTs were obtained through suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH), which preferentially expressed in differentiating xylem of Chinese fir [18, 19]. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of wood formation remains to be elucidated, especially for Chinese fir. It is undoubtedly helpful and meaningful to explore transcriptome for further molecular improvement on this non-model plant.
RNA-Seq, dubbed “a revolutionary tool for transcriptomics”, refers to the use of next generation sequencing platforms to sequence cDNA in order to get information about a sample’s RNA content . Thanks to a single-base resolution and deep coverage, RNA-Seq provides researchers with an efficient way to measure transcriptome data experimentally. This simplifies the identification of transcription start sites, new splicing variants and rare transcripts, and allows allele expression to be monitored [20, 21]. Furthermore it allows the direct transcriptome analysis of non-model organisms, and has been successfully applied to non-model organisms recently [22–31].
In the present study, we have used Illumina paired-end sequencing technology to characterize the transcriptome of Chinese fir. The coverage of the transcriptome, at 3.62 gigabase pairs (Gbp), was comprehensive enough to discover the majority of the known wood formation genes. This transcriptome dataset will serve as a publicly available information platform for future gene expression, genomic, and functional genomic studies in Chinese fir.
Illumina paired-end sequencing and de novo assembly
Length distribution of assembled contigs, scaffolds and Unigenes
Nucleotide length (bp)
Minimum length (bp)
Maximum length (bp)
Average length (bp)
Total nucleotide length (bp)
The contigs were assembled into scaffolds using paired-end joining. As a result, 108,786 scaffolds were obtained with an average length of 375 bp and including 9,285 scaffolds longer than 1,000 bp (Table 1). Although 85.22% scaffolds had no gaps, roughly 532,236 bp gaps (1.42% of the total unique sequences) remained unclosed (See Additional file 1). To shorten the remaining gaps further, read pairs that had one end well aligned on the contigs and the other end located in the gap regions were retrieved using the paired-end information, then, a local assembly was done with the collected reads to fill in the small gaps within scaffolds. The gap-filled scaffolds were clustered and assembled to get sequences with least Ns and cannot be extended on either end. Such unique sequences are defined as Unigenes. In this step, a length equivalent to nine-tenths of the gaps was filled, and a total length of only 12,175 bp gaps (0.03% of total unique sequences) remained unclosed. The distribution of the remaining gaps is shown in Additional file 1. Overall 83,248 Unigenes were obtained with an average length of 449 bp, and a combined length of 37.40 Mb (Table 1). The lengths of the assembled Unigenes ranged from 150 to 5,144 bp; 20,179 Unigenes were ≥500 bp and 7,742 were ≥1,000 bp (Table 1). The length distribution of the Unigenes was similar as that of the Scaffolds, that is, the majority were the shorter sequences.
Functional annotation based on searches against public databases
Summary of database matches for the Chinese fir Unigenes
All searched Unigenes
Hits against plant proteins of NR
Hits against Swiss-Prot
Hits against KEGG
Hits against COG
GO annotations for NR protein hits
3 main categories
All annotated Unigenes
Unigenes matching all four databases
Annotation of predicted proteins
Gene expression levels can be represented as reads per kilobase per million mapped reads (RPKM) in RNA-Seq . The RPKM value of the annotated Unigenes varied from 1.13 to 2141.68, with an average of 32.35. Thirty-five annotated Unigenes that represented the most abundant transcripts in the Chinese fir cDNA library had RPKM values of more than 500 (Additional file 5). These genes were predicted to encode the enzymes involved in photosynthetic metabolism, biotic and abiotic stress responses, such as ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/ oxygenase, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, ferredoxin-NADP oxidoreductase, germin-like protein and superoxide dismutase. Five abundant transcripts encoding ribosomal proteins were also identified. Because lignin and cellulose are the two major polymeric components of wood, it is not surprising that 443 of the Unigenes were annotated as encoding the major enzymes involved in cellulose and lignin biosynthesis, such as phenylalanine ammonia lyase, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, 4-coumarate CoA ligase, cellulose synthase and sucrose synthase. The RPKM values for these Unigenes were between 1.49 and 426.91 (Additional file 6 and Additional file 7).
Functional classification by GO and COG
The distribution of the sub-categories in each main category is shown in Figure 3. In the cellular component category, 11,020 (32.31%) and 11,018 (32.31%) Unigenes were assigned to cell and cell part respectively; they represented the majority of the Unigenes in this category. Only a few of the Unigenes were assigned to extracellular region, extracellular region part, and virion. Within the biological process category, metabolic process (7,532 Unigenes, 27.94%) and cellular process (6,001 Unigenes, 22.26%) were prominent, indicating that these Unigenes were involved in some important metabolic activities in Chinese fir. Interestingly, seven Unigenes were assigned to the biological adhesion category and a relatively large number of genes (2,477 Unigenes) were annotated as being involved in response to different stimuli. In the molecular function category, catalytic activity (9,612 Unigenes, 46.19%) represented the most abundant term, followed by binding (8,770 Unigenes, 42.15%), transporter activity (1,036, 4.98%) and molecular transducer activity (441, 2.12%).
KEGG pathway mapping
To understand the biological pathways that might be active in C. lanceolata, the Unigenes were compared against the KEGG database . The results showed that of the 73,779 Unigenes, 21,689 (29.40%) had significant matches and were assigned to 119 KEGG pathways (Table 2). Among them, 13,254 Unigenes could be mapped to a single Enzyme Commission (EC) number. The pathways that were most represented were phenylpropanoid biosynthesis (982 Unigenes), starch and sucrose metabolism (685), flavonoid biosynthesis (663), stilbenoid, diarylheptanoid and gingerol biosynthesis (555) and phenylalanine metabolism (534). These annotations will be a valuable resource for further research on specific processes, structures, functions, and pathways in Chinese fir.
Analysis of metabolic pathway annotated C. lanceolata unigenes
The 42,799 annotated Unigenes are a significant contribution to the expansion of the existing C. lanceolata EST libraries. The annotated C. lanceolata metabolic pathway Unigenes were analyzed, following a previously published method . Cellulose and lignin are the main chemical components of the plant cell secondary wall, and are significantly related to wood quality. Therefore, we have selected the lignin and cellulose metabolic pathways for further analysis. We started with simple keyword searches in the functional annotations of the Unigenes and confirmed each search result with BLAST searches against other plant protein sequences in the public databases and, if no hits were found, against other plant nucleotide sequences [28, 29].
Cellulose biosynthesis in C. lanceolata
Lignin biosynthesis in C. lanceolata
Furthermore, two Unigenes for the lignin-related R2R3 transcription factor, MYB1 and MYB2 were found. MYB1 and MYB2 are members of a MYB transcription factor family that may regulate transcription from cis-acting AC elements of genes in the phenylpropanoid and monolignol-specific pathways [53, 54].
Gene validation and expression analysis
Sequence analyses of the 18 putative C. lanceolata genes involved in cellulose and lignin biosynthesis
Length of putative full-length cDNA
Characteristics of correspondent Unigenes
Wood is an important raw material with rapidly increasing worldwide demand and, as a result, plant biologists have been paying more attention to understanding the genetic regulation of wood formation. Transcriptome sequencing is an important tool that is increasingly being used to discover the genes that control economic traits. Although traditional EST sequencing methods, such as Sanger sequencing, have made significant contributions to functional genomics research, the method is costly, time-consuming, and sensitive to cloning biases. Because of the potential for high throughput, accuracy and low cost, next-generation sequencing (NGS) is now being widely applied to analyze transcriptomes qualitatively and quantitatively. In this study, the de novo transcriptome sequencing analysis of Chinese fir was conducted using the Illumina platform. As a result, approximately 40.22 million paired-end reads were obtained, generating 3.62 Gbp of sequence data. The large number of reads and associated paired-end information that were produced resulted in a relatively high coverage depth (average = 33.56 ×). When these sequences were assembled, we obtained longer Unigenes (mean = 449 bp) than has been reported previously in studies using the same technology; for example, Camellia sinensi s (mean Unigene length = 355 bp) , Lycoris sprengeri (385 bp) , Porphyra yezoensis (419 bp)  and whitefly (clusters = 372 bp; singletons = 265 bp) . The number of assembled Unigenes was 112-fold more than all the Chinese fir sequences that were currently deposited in GenBank (as of March 2012).
All the Chinese fir Unigenes that were remapped by at least 6 reads were subjected to BLASTX analysis against four public databases. A total of 57.83% (42,663 of 73,779) Unigenes had homologs in the NR and Swiss-Prot databases, whereas in Camellia sinensi s , Lycoris sprengeri, Porphyra yezoensis and whitefly , only 32.6%, 45.5%, 40.6%, and 16.2% Unigenes, respectively, had homologs in the NR database. The higher percentage of matches that we found in our study was partly because of longer Unigenes in our database. The remaining 43.17% (31,116) of the Unigenes did not match any of the known genes. Specifically, 63.71% of sequences between 150–200 bp, 57.36% between 201–300 bp, and 2.24% longer than 1,000 bp, had no BLAST matches against the NR protein database, implying that BLAST hits were more likely to be found for longer query sequences. The shorter sequences might either lack a characterized protein domain or be too short to find statistically meaningful matches. However, some of sequences that had no BLAST hits might represent potential Chinese-fir-specific genes. In addition, 27,224 unique protein accession numbers were identified by the BLAST searches. If the number of Chinese fir genes is assumed to be commensurate with that of Populus trichocarpa (black cottonwood), which has been annotated as having 45,555 genes , then our annotated Unigenes represent 59.76% of the number of black cottonwood genes. Of the annotated Chinese fir Unigenes, 16,750 were assigned to GO terms and 14,877 were given COG classifications. In addition, 21,689 Unigenes were mapped to 119 KEGG pathways. These results indicated that our Illumina paired-end sequencing project yielded a substantial fraction of genes from Chinese fir.
Cellulose and lignin are two important biopolymers that account for most of the dry weight in wood. For additional analyses of our transcriptome Unigenes, we focused on the genes involved in their biosynthesis. According to the currently accepted cellulose and lignin metabolic pathways, almost all genes required to encode the related enzymes were found in our transcriptome data set (Figures 5 and 6 and Additional file 6 and Additional file 7). Many of the genes involved in these pathways appear to be from multigene families, which is consistent with related reports of Arabidopsis and poplar [12, 13]. Chinese fir is a diploid organism with a large genome, so it is possible that the Chinese fir genome might have gone through extensive re-arrangement during its evolution. Except for three of the enzymes (CesA, CCR and CAD), none of the others have been previously reported in this species. We discovered two R2R3-MYB transcription factors that might regulate lignification in our transcriptome data set. To validate our assembly and annotation, we selected 18 genes that were annotated to enzymes related to cellulose and lignin biosynthesis. Overall 49 Unigenes were found to align to these genes. These Unigenes covered different regions of the corresponding full-length genes. This result implied that the Unigenes obtained from the transcriptome sequencing were consistent with the results of the Sanger sequencing. Furthermore, each target gene generated the expected product band size by RT-PCR, and the results of the qRT-PCR analysis confirmed their putative functions. Thus, we have shown that the transcriptome dataset is a valuable addition to the publicly available Chinese fir genomic information.
In this study, we employed RNA-seq to analyze the transcriptome of Chinese fir at an unprecedented depth (3.62 gigabase pairs) and produced 83,248 assembled Unigenes, 112-fold more than all the Chinese fir sequences deposited in GenBank (as of March 2012). A total of 73,779 Unigenes were supported by more than 5 reads, 58.01% were found to have homologs in the public databases. The annotated Unigenes were functionally classified based on their matches in the GO, COG and KEGG databases. This study demonstrated that the Illumina paired-end sequencing technology is a fast and cost-effective method for novel gene discovery in non-model plant organisms. In addition, the Chinese fir Unigenes provided a comprehensive enough coverage to allow the discovery of almost all the genes known to be involved in cellulose and lignin biosynthesis. We believe that this transcriptome dataset will serve as an important public information platform to improve the understanding of molecular mechanism of wood formation in Chinese fir.
Plant material and RNA extraction
Tissues from a four-year-old ramet of a Chinese fir clone (Zhelin 21) were collected in the experimental station of the Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Hangzhou, China. The following tissues were sampled from approximately breast height (1.30 m) on the main stem: bark containing developing phloem and cambium, immature xylem (outer glutinous 1-1.5 mm layer comprising early developing xylem tissue) and xylem (after removal of the immature xylem layer, 2-mm-deep planing including xylem cells in advanced stages of maturity). We also sampled non-lignified stems (non-lignified portion of crown tip branches containing shoot primordia and apical meristems), lignifying stems, young leaves (rapidly-growing leaves from current-year branches), mature leaves (one-year-old leaves), cones and young roots. All the sampled tissues were immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80°C until use.
Total RNA from the nine tissues was extracted with the PureLink™ Plant RNA Reagent (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. The total RNA samples were then treated with RQ1 RNase-Free DNase (Promega, Madison, WI, USA) to remove DNA contaminants. RNA integrity was confirmed using a 2100 Bioanalyzer RNA Nanochip (Agilent, Santa Clara, CA, USA) with a minimum RNA Integrity Number (RIN) value of more than 7. RNA concentration was determined using a NanoDrop ND-1000 Spectrophotometer (Nano-Drop, Wilmington, DE, USA). For cDNA preparation, a total of 20 μg of RNA was pooled equally from each of the nine tissues.
cDNA library construction and transcriptome sequencing
Enrichment of poly(A) mRNA was performed using the Dynal oligo(dT) 25 beads (Invitrogen). Following purification, the mRNA was fragmented into smaller pieces using divalent cations at 70°C for 5 min. Using these short fragments as templates, first-strand cDNA was synthesized using Superscript™ III reverse transcriptase (Invitrogen) and random hexamer (N6) primers (TaKaRa, Kyoto, Japan). Subsequently, the second strand cDNA was synthesized using RNaseH and DNA polymerase I (Invitrogen). The short double cDNA fragments that were obtained were purified with a QiaQuick PCR extraction kit (QIAGEN, GmbH, Germany). After end reparation and A-tailing, the short cDNA fragments were connected with the Illumina paired-end adaptors and purified with magnetic beads. Then, to prepare the cDNA sequencing library, suitable ligation products were amplified using Illumina primers and Phusion DNA polymerase (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA). The quality and quantity of the cDNA library were measured using the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer (Agilent) and CFX96™ Real-Time PCR Detection System (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA, USA). Finally, the library was sequenced from both the 5’ and 3’ ends using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 system (Illumina) at Beijing Genomics Institute (BGI, Shenzhen, China). The fluorescent image outputs from the sequencing machine were transformed by base calling into sequence data, which we called the raw reads. The sequencing data were deposited in NCBI Sequence Read Archive (SRA, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Traces/sra) with accession number SRA051493.
Data filtering and de novo assembly
The raw reads were filtered to obtain high-quality clean reads data by removing adaptor sequences, reads containing more than 5% Ns (where N represents ambiguous bases in the reads), and low-quality reads defined as having more than 10% bases with Q-value <20. The de novo assembly of the clean reads was carried out using the SOAPdenovo program (http://soap.genomics.org.cn/soapdenovo.html) with the default settings, except for the k-mer value, which was set at a specific chosen value . For the assembly, the clean reads were firstly split into smaller lengths, the k-mers. After assessing different k-mer values, we found that a 29-mer yielded the best assembly. This value was chosen to construct the de Bruijn graph. Contigs with no unknown bases were obtained by conjoining the k-mers in an unambiguous path. The resultant contigs were further joined into scaffolds by mapping them back to contigs with the paired-end reads. Finally, Paired-end reads are used again for gap filling of scaffolds, then gap-filled scaffolds are clustered to remove redundant sequences using the TIGR gene Indices Clustering (TGICL) tools (version 2.1) at the parameters of “-l 40 -V 25”, and overlapped scaffolds are further assembled using Phrap (version 23.0) at default parameters to get sequences with least Ns and cannot be extended on either end (See Additional file 9). Such unique assembled sequences are defined as Unigenes. The assembled sequences (longer than 200 bp) were deposited in the Transcriptome Shotgun Assembly Sequence Database (http://www.ncbi.nih.gov/genbank/tsa.html) at NCBI with the accession numbers: JU981479-JU999999, JV000001- JV043149.
To evaluate the coverage depth, all usable reads were realigned to the Unigenes using SOAPaligner (http://soap.genomics.org.cn/soapaligner.html) . In addition, to assess the quality of the de novo assembly, a comparative genome analysis was conducted against the Spruce Gene Index Release 5.0 from the TIGR Gene Indices (currently curated at Harvard University, http://compbio.dfci.harvard.edu/tgi/) using the reciprocal TBLASTX algorithm with an E-value threshold of 1e-5. The BLAST results was parsed by a Perl script written based on the bioperl module SearchIO.pm.
Functional annotation and classification
All the Unigenes that were remapped by more than 5 reads were annotated by assigning putative gene descriptions, conserved domains, Gene Ontology (GO) terms, and putative metabolic pathways to them based on their sequence similarity with previously identified genes. First, the Unigenes were aligned using BLASTX to the public protein databases NR, Swiss-Prot, KEGG and COG (E-value ≤1e-5). The best-aligning results were used to identify the sequence direction and to predict the coding regions. When the results from different databases conflicted, a priority order of NR, Swiss-Prot, KEGG and COG was followed. The ESTScan software  was used for the analysis of Unigenes that did not align to any of the above databases. Based on the best BLASTX hits from the NR database, functional categorization was performed using Blast2GO software (version 2.3.5, http://www.blast2go.de/)  with an E-value threshold of 1e-5 to assign GO terms. Next, the GO functional classification of all the Unigenes was analyzed using WEGO software  to determine the distribution of the Chinese fir gene functions at the macro level. The COG and KEGG pathway annotations were performed by sequence comparisons against the two databases using BLASTALL software (http://ftp://ftp.ncbi.nih.gov/blast/executables/release/2.2.18/) with an E-value ≤1e-5.
Analysis of C. lanceolata Unigenes related to metabolic pathway genes
C. lanceolata Unigenes that might be homologs of the genes involved in the cellulose and lignin biosynthetic pathways that are related to wood quality were identified according to a previously described method . The Unigenes were analyzed based on a search for standard gene names and synonyms in the functional annotations of the Unigenes; each search result was further confirmed using BLAST searches. First, the corresponding Unigenes obtained by keyword searches were aligned with spruce and other plant protein sequences from the public databases using the local TBLASTN alignment tool with an E-value threshold of 1e-5. If no ideal matches to the protein sequences were found, then TBLASTN alignments (E-value ≤1e-5) with spruce and other plant nucleotide sequences were used. When the BLAST searches gave results that were identical to those of the keyword searches, we concluded that the corresponding genes were expressed in C. lanceolata.
Gene validation and expression analysis
Eighteen genes with potential roles in cellulose and lignin synthesis were selected for validation of the transcriptome data. Based on the sequences of the corresponding Unigenes, the 5’ and 3’ ends of each gene were firstly isolated using the SMARTer™ RACE cDNA amplification kit (Clontech, Palo Alto, CA, USA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. To confirm that each of the assembled cDNA sequences originated from a single, full-length cDNA, primers were designed on the sequences of the 5’ and 3’ untranslated regions (UTRs). Full-length RT-PCRs were performed using a PrimeScript® RT-PCR kit (TaKaRa) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. PCR-products were separated by gel electrophoresis, purified with an AxyPrep™ DNA gel extraction kit (Axygen, Union City, CA, USA), cloned into the pGEM®-T easy vector (Promega) and sequenced by Genscript Corporation (Nanjing, China) with an ABI 3730 (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA). The ORFs of the putative full-length cDNAs that were obtained were predicted using the online ORF finder program (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gorf/gorf.html), and were aligned with the corresponding Unigenes respectively using the MegAlign tool of the DNASTAR 7.0 software. In addition, the expression patterns of the genes in four C. lanceolata tissues (non-lignified stem, lignifying stem, bark and xylem) were analyzed by qRT-PCR using CFX96™ Real-Time PCR Detection System (Bio-Rad). One μg of total DNaseI-treated RNA extracted from each of the four tissues was reverse transcribed into first strand cDNA in a standard 20 μL reaction with PrimeScript® RT reagent kit (TaKaRa). The SYBR® Premix Ex Taq™ (Tli RNaseH Plus) kit (TaKaRa) was used for real time qPCR starting with 0.8 μL cDNA template in a standard 10 μL reaction. The qPCR cycle was as follows: 95°C for 3 min, 40 cycles of 95°C for 5 s, and annealing at 60°C for 30 s. The specificity of the individual PCR amplifications was checked using melting curve analysis and agarose gel electrophoresis. All PCR reactions were performed in quadruplicate. The actin gene was chosen as an internal control for normalization after the expressions of four reference genes (actin, GAPDH, 18S and α-tubulin) were compared in different tissues. Relative quantification was preformed with the CFX96 Manager™ software (version 1.6; Bio-Rad, USA) using the delta-delta Ct method as described by Livak and Schmittgen . For comparison of each gene, the qPCR data were normalized to the non-lignified stem for which the relative RNA level was set to 1. All the gene-specific primers for RACE, full-length RT-PCR and qPCR were designed using the Oligo software (version 5.0). The primer sequences of the 18 selected genes are listed in an additional file (See Additional file 10).
The authors thank the Beijing Genome Institute at Shenzhen, China for the technical support that it provided for Illumina sequencing and for the initial data analysis. This work was supported in part by the National High-Tech Research and Development Program of China (863 Program) (Grant no. 2011AA10020302), the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province (Grant no. Y3090510), and the Zhejiang Province Science and Technology Support Program (Grant nos. 2008C02004-1 and 2011C12014).
- Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Simons A: Agroforestree database: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0. 2009, [http://www.worldagroforestry.org/af/treedb/]Google Scholar
- Li SX, Zhang XY, Wang YY, Yin TM: Content and characteristics of microsatellites detected in expressed sequence tag sequences in Eucalyptus. Chinese Bulletin of Botany. 2010, 45: 363-371.Google Scholar
- Sterky F, Regan S, Karlsson J, Hertzberg M, Rohde A, Holmberg A, Amini B, Bhalerao R, Larsson M, Villarroel R, Van Montagu M, Sandberg G, Olsson O, Teeri TT, Boerjan W, Gustafsson P, Uhlén M, Sundberg B, Lundeberg J: Gene discovery in the wood-forming tissues of poplar: analysis of 5, 692 expressed sequence tags. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1998, 95: 13330-13335. 10.1073/pnas.95.22.13330.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Israelsson M, Eriksson ME, Hertzberg M, Aspeborg H, Nilsson P, Moritz T: Changes in gene expression in the wood-forming tissue of transgenic hybrid aspen with increased secondary growth. Plant Mol Biol. 2003, 52: 893-903. 10.1023/A:1025097410445.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schrader J, Nilsson J, Mellerowicz E, Berglund A, Nilsson P, Hertzberg M, Sandberg G: A high-resolution transcript profile across the wood-forming meristem of poplar identifies potential regulators of cambial stem cell identity. Plant Cell. 2004, 16: 2278-2292. 10.1105/tpc.104.024190.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dharmawardhana P, Brunner AM, Strauss SH: Genome-wide transcriptome analysis of the transition from primary to secondary stem development in Populus trichocarpa. BMC Genomics. 2010, 11: 150-168. 10.1186/1471-2164-11-150.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Paux E, Carocha V, Marques C, de Sousa Mendes A, Borralho N, Sivadon P, Grima-Pettenati J: Transcript profiling of Eucalyptus xylem genes during tension wood formation. New Phytol. 2005, 167: 89-100. 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2005.01396.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Foucart C, Paux E, Ladouce N, San-Clemente H, Grima-Pettenati J, Sivadon P: Transcript profiling of a xylem vs phloem cDNA subtractive library identifies new genes expressed during xylogenesis in Eucalyptus. New Phytol. 2006, 170: 739-752. 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2006.01705.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Paiva JA, Garcés M, Alves A, Garnier-Géré P, Rodrigues JC, Lalanne C, Porcon S, Le Provost G, Perez Dda S, Brach J, Frigerio JM, Claverol S, Barré A, Fevereiro P, Plomion C: Molecular and phenotypic profiling from the base to the crown in maritime pine wood-forming tissue. New Phytol. 2008, 178: 283-301. 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2008.02379.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nairn CJ, Lennon DM, Wood-Jones A, Nairn AV, Dean JF: Carbohydrate-related genes and cell wall biosynthesis in vascular tissues of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda). Tree Physiol. 2008, 28: 1099-1110. 10.1093/treephys/28.7.1099.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pavy N, Boyle B, Nelson C, Paule C, Giguère I, Caron S, Parsons LS, Dallaire N, Bedon F, Bérubé H, Cooke J, Mackay J: Identification of conserved core xylem gene sets: conifer cDNA microarray development, transcript profiling and computational analyses. New Phytol. 2008, 180: 766-786. 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2008.02615.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Joshi CP, Bhandari S, Ranjan P, Kalluri UC, Liang X, Fujino T, Samuga A: Genomics of cellulose biosynthesis in poplars. New Phytol. 2004, 164: 53-61. 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2004.01155.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Li L, Lu S, Chiang V: A genomic and molecular view of wood formation. Crit Rev Plant Sci. 2006, 25: 215-233. 10.1080/07352680600611519.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Festucci-Buselli1 RA, Otoni1 WC, Joshi CP: Structure, organization, and functions of cellulose synthase complexes in higher plants. Braz J Plant Physiol. 2007, 19 (1): 1-13.Google Scholar
- Vanholme R, Demedts B, Morreel K, Ralph J, Boerjan W: Lignin biosynthesis and structure. Plant Physiol. 2010, 153 (3): 895-905. 10.1104/pp.110.155119.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Demura T, Fukuda H: Transcriptional regulation in wood formation. Trends Plant Sci. 2006, 12: 1360-1385.Google Scholar
- Zhong R, Ye ZH: Transcriptional regulation of lignin biosynthesis. Plant Signal Behav. 2009, 4 (11): 1028-1034. 10.4161/psb.4.11.9875.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wang GF, Gao Y, Yang LW, Shi JS: Identification and analysis of differentially expressed genes in differentiating xylem of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) by suppression subtractive hybridization. Genome. 2007, 50 (12): 1141-1155. 10.1139/G07-091.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wang G, Gao Y, Wang J, Yang L, Song R, Li X, Shi J: Overexpression of two cambium- abundant Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) α-expansin genes ClEXPA1 and ClEXPA2 affect growth and development in transgenic tobacco and increase the amount of cellulose in stem cell walls. Plant Biotechnol J. 2011, 9 (4): 486-502. 10.1111/j.1467-7652.2010.00569.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wang Z, Gerstein M, Snyder M: RNA-Seq: a revolutionary tool for transcriptomics. Nat Rev Genet. 2009, 10 (1): 57-63. 10.1038/nrg2484.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wilhelm BT, Marguerat S, Watt S, Schubert F, Wood V, Goodhead I, Penkett CJ, JaneRogers J, Bähler J: Dynamic repertoire of a eukaryotic transcriptome surveyed at single- nucleotide resolution. Nature. 2008, 453 (7199): 1239-1243. 10.1038/nature07002.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Collins LJ, Biggs PJ, Voelckel C, Joly S: An approach to transcriptome analysis of non-model organisms using short-read sequences. Genome Inform. 2008, 21: 3-14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Parchman TL, Geist KS, Grahnen JA, Benkman CW, Buerkle CA: Transcriptome sequencing in an ecologically important tree species: assembly, annotation, and marker discovery. BMC Genomics. 2010, 11: 180-10.1186/1471-2164-11-180.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sun C, Li Y, Wu Q, Luo H, Sun Y, Song J, Lui EM, Chen S: De novo sequencing and analysis of the American ginseng root transcriptome using a GS FLX Titanium platform to discover putative genes involved in ginsenoside biosynthesis. BMC Genomics. 2010, 11: 262-10.1186/1471-2164-11-262.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Natarajan P, Parani M: De novo assembly and transcriptome analysis of five major tissues of Jatropha curcas L. using GS FLX titanium platform of 454 pyrosequencing. BMC Genomics. 2011, 12: 191-10.1186/1471-2164-12-191.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hsiao YY, Chen YW, Huang SC, Pan ZJ, Fu CH, Chen WH, Tsai WC, Chen HH: Gene discovery using next-generation pyrosequencing to develop ESTs for Phalaenopsis orchids. BMC Genomics. 2011, 12: 360-10.1186/1471-2164-12-360.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wang XW, Luan JB, Li JM, Bao YY, Zhang CX, Liu SS: De novo characterization of a whitefly transcriptome and analysis of its gene expression during development. BMC Genomics. 2010, 11: 400-10.1186/1471-2164-11-400.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wang Z, Fang B, Chen J, Zhang X, Luo Z, Huang L, Chen X, Li Y: De novo assembly and characterization of root transcriptome using Illumina paired-end sequencing and development of cSSR markers in sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas). BMC Genomics. 2010, 11: 726-10.1186/1471-2164-11-726.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shi CY, Yang H, Wei CL, Yu O, Zhang ZZ, Jiang CJ, Sun J, Li YY, Chen Q, Xia T, Wan XC: Deep sequencing of the Camellia sinensis transcriptome revealed candidate genes for major metabolic pathways of tea-specific compounds. BMC Genomics. 2011, 12: 131-10.1186/1471-2164-12-131.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chang L, Chen JJ, Xiao YM, Xia YP: De novo characterization of Lycoris sprengeri transcriptome using Illumina GA II. Afr J Biotechnol. 2011, 10 (57): 12147-12155.Google Scholar
- Yang H, Mao YX, Kong FN, Yang GP, Ma F, Wang L: Profiling of the transcriptome of Porphyra yezoensis with Solexa sequencing technology. Chin Sci Bull. 2011, 56 (20): 2119-2130. 10.1007/s11434-011-4546-4.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Li R, Zhu H, Ruan J, Qian W, Fang X, Shi Z, Li Y, Li S, Shan G, Kristiansen K, Li S, Yang H, Wang J, Wang J: De novo assembly of human genomes with massively parallel short read sequencing. Genome Res. 2010, 20: 265-272. 10.1101/gr.097261.109.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Li R, Li Y, Kristiansen K, Wang J: SOAP: short oligonucleotide alignment program. Bioinformatics. 2008, 24: 713-714. 10.1093/bioinformatics/btn025.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Altschul SF, Madden TL, Schaffer AA, Zhang J, Zhang Z, Miller W, Lipman DJ: Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs. Nucleic Acids Res. 1997, 25: 3389-3402. 10.1093/nar/25.17.3389.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cameron M, Williams HE, Cannane A: Improved gapped alignment in BLAST. IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform. 2004, 1 (3): 116-129. 10.1109/TCBB.2004.32.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nr Database: [ftp://ftp.ncbi.nih.gov/blast/db/FASTA/nr.gz]
- The UniProt-SwissProt Database: [http://www.uniprot.org/downloads]
- KEGG Database: [http://www.genome.jp/kegg/]
- Mortazavi A, Williams BA, McCue K, Schaeffer L, Wold B: Mapping and quantifying mammalian transcriptomes by RNA-Seq. Nat Methods. 2008, 5: 621-628. 10.1038/nmeth.1226.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Conesa A, Gotz S, Garcia-Gomez JM, Terol J, Talon M, Robles M: Blast2GO: a universal tool for annotation, visualization and analysis in functional genomics research. Bioinformatics. 2005, 21 (18): 3674-3676. 10.1093/bioinformatics/bti610.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ye J, Fang L, Zheng H, Zhang Y, Chen J, Zhang Z, Wang J, Li S, Li R, Bolund L: WEGO: a web tool for plotting GO annotations. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006, 34: 293-297. 10.1093/nar/gkl031.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kanehisa M, Goto S, Kawashima S, Okuno Y, Hattori M: The KEGG resource for deciphering the genome. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004, 32: D277-D280. 10.1093/nar/gkh063.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Engelhardt J: Sources, industrial derivatives, and commercial applications of cellulose. Carbohydr Eur. 1995, 12: 5-14.Google Scholar
- Guerriero G, Fugelstad J, Bulone V: What do we really know about cellulose biosynthesis in higher plants?. J Integr Plant Biol. 2010, 52 (2): 161-175. 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2010.00935.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kimura S, Kondo T: Recent progress in cellulose biosynthesis. J Plant Res. 2002, 115 (4): 297-302. 10.1007/s10265-002-0037-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Peng LC, Kawagoe Y, Hogan P, Delmer D: Sitosterol-β-glucoside as primer for cellulose synthesis in plants. Science. 2002, 295: 147-150. 10.1126/science.1064281.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Richmond T: Higher plant cellulose synthases. Genome Biol. 2000, 1: 1-6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Djerbi S, Lindskog M, Arvestad L, Sterky F, Teeri TT: The genome sequence of black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) reveals 18 conserved cellulose synthase (CesA) genes. Planta. 2005, 221: 739-746. 10.1007/s00425-005-1498-4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mølhøj M, Pagant S, Höfte H: Towards understanding the role of membrane-bound endo-beta-1,4-glucanases in cellulose biosynthesis. Plant Cell Physiol. 2002, 43: 1399-1406. 10.1093/pcp/pcf163.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Takahashi J, Rudsander UJ, Hedenström M, Banasiak A, Harholt J, Amelot N, Immerzeel P, Ryden P, Endo S, Ibatullin FM, Brumer H, del Campillo E, Master ER, Scheller HV, Sundberg B, Teeri TT, Mellerowicz EJ: KORRIGAN1 and its aspen homolog PttCel9A1 decrease cellulose crystallinity in Arabidopsis stems. Plant Cell Physiol. 2009, 50 (6): 1099-1115. 10.1093/pcp/pcp062.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhong R, Morrison WH, Himmelsbach DS, Poole FL, Ye ZH: Essential role of caffeoyl coenzyme A O-methyltransferase in lignin biosynthesis in woody poplar plants. Plant Physiol. 2000, 124: 563-577. 10.1104/pp.124.2.563.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wadenbäck J, Von Arnold S, Egertsdotter U, Walter MH, Grima-Pettenati J, Goffner D, Gellerstedt G, Gullion T, Clapham D: Lignin biosynthesis in transgenic Norway spruce plants harboring an antisense construct for cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR). Transgenic Res. 2008, 17: 379-392. 10.1007/s11248-007-9113-z.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Patzlaff A, Newman LJ, Dubos C, Whetten RW, Smith C, McInnis S, Bevan MW, Sederoff RR, Campbell MM: Characterisation of PtMYB1, an R2R3-MYB from pine xylem. Plant Mol Biol. 2003, 53: 597-608.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Patzlaff A, McInnis S, Courtenay A, Surman C, Newman LJ, Smith C, Bevan MW, Mansfield S, Whetten RW, Sederoff RR, Campbell MM: Characterisation of a pine MYB that regulates lignification. Plant J. 2003, 36 (6): 743-754. 10.1046/j.1365-313X.2003.01916.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tuskan GA, Difazio S, Jansson S, Bohlmann J, Grigoriev I, Hellsten U, Putnam N, Ralph S, Rombauts S, Salamov A, Schein J, Sterck L, Aerts A, Bhalerao RR, Bhalerao RP, Blaudez D, Boerjan W, Brun A, Brunner A, Busov V, Campbell M, Carlson J, Chalot M, Chapman J, Chen GL, Cooper D, Coutinho PM, Couturier J, Covert S, Cronk Q, et al: The genome of black cottonwood, Populus trichocarpa (Torr. & Gray). Science. 2006, 313 (5793): 1596-1604. 10.1126/science.1128691.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Iseli C, Jongeneel CV, Bucher P: ESTScan: a program for detecting, evaluating, and reconstructing potential coding regions in EST sequences. Proc Int Conf Intell Syst Mol Biol. 1999, 138-148.Google Scholar
- Livak KJ, Schmittgen TD: Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2(-Delta Delta C(t)) method. Methods. 2001, 25: 402-408. 10.1006/meth.2001.1262.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.