- Research article
- Open Access
Medium-sized tandem repeats represent an abundant component of the Drosophila virilis genome
© Abdurashitov et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
- Received: 30 December 2012
- Accepted: 28 October 2013
- Published: 9 November 2013
Previously, we developed a simple method for carrying out a restriction enzyme analysis of eukaryotic DNA in silico, based on the known DNA sequences of the genomes. This method allows the user to calculate lengths of all DNA fragments that are formed after a whole genome is digested at the theoretical recognition sites of a given restriction enzyme. A comparison of the observed peaks in distribution diagrams with the results from DNA cleavage using several restriction enzymes performed in vitro have shown good correspondence between the theoretical and experimental data in several cases. Here, we applied this approach to the annotated genome of Drosophila virilis which is extremely rich in various repeats.
Here we explored the combined approach to perform the restriction analysis of D. virilis DNA. This approach enabled to reveal three abundant medium-sized tandem repeats within the D. virilis genome. While the 225 bp repeats were revealed previously in intergenic non-transcribed spacers between ribosomal genes of D. virilis, two other families comprised of 154 bp and 172 bp repeats were not described. Tandem Repeats Finder search demonstrated that 154 bp and 172 bp units are organized in multiple clusters in the genome of D. virilis. Characteristically, only 154 bp repeats derived from Helitron transposon are transcribed.
Using in silico digestion in combination with conventional restriction analysis and sequencing of repeated DNA fragments enabled us to isolate and characterize three highly abundant families of medium-sized repeats present in the D. virilis genome. These repeats comprise a significant portion of the genome and may have important roles in genome function and structural integrity. Therefore, we demonstrated an approach which makes possible to investigate in detail the gross arrangement and expression of medium-sized repeats basing on sequencing data even in the case of incompletely assembled and/or annotated genomes.
- Drosophila virilis
- in silico digestion
- Medium size repeats
Though multiple plant and animal genomes have been sequenced and annotated, including many from Drosophila, abundant fractions of repeated DNA often forming heterochromatic regions of the genome escape description. Large heterochromatic segments of genomes remain poorly analysed because the repetitive nature of the DNA present in heterochromatin makes cloning, assembly and annotation very difficult. Heterochromatic regions are the dark matter in genomes and even for well studied organisms we still do not have a complete genomic sequence due to the difficulties of sequencing these regions. Previously, we developed a simple method for carrying out a restriction enzyme analysis of eukaryotic DNA in silico, based on the known DNA sequences of the genomes . This method allows the user to calculate lengths of all DNA fragments that are formed after a whole genome is digested at the theoretical recognition sites of a given restriction enzyme. The program also constructs distribution diagrams of the calculated restriction DNA fragments. These distribution diagrams display distinct peaks, where DNA fragments of definite lengths are present due to DNA repeats in eukaryotic genomes. A comparison of the observed peaks in distribution diagrams with the results from rat, mouse and human DNA cleavage using several restriction enzymes performed in vitro have shown good correspondence between the theoretical and experimental data [2, 3]. Here, we applied this approach to the annotated genome of Drosophila virilis.
Satellite and minisatellite DNAs constitute a considerable part of the genomic DNA and are often found as runs of thousands or more copies of unit sequences (100-300 bp and 3–15 bp, respectively) predominantly localized in heterochromatic regions. SatDNA is generally formed by long tandem arrays in which the units are repeated in a head-to-tail fashion [4, 5]. More than 40% of the D. virilis genome consists of three simple minisatellite DNAs, each of which are seven base pairs long, that are located predominantly in pericentromeric heterochromatin in all chromosomes of species within the virilis phylad .
D. virilis represents the most karyotipically primitive species of the virilis phylad [7, 8]. The availability of a sequenced genome enables the application of our in silico digestion method to look for the presence and abundance of repeats that were not adequately described in the sequenced genome of this species, due to limitations of current sequencing and mapping techniques for assembling tandem repeat motifs scattered throughout the genome.
In past decades, an extensive analysis of various classes of repeats, including cryptic satellites and various classes of mobile elements in D. virilis and other species of the virilis group, have been performed in our laboratory and by other groups [9–14]. Therefore, it was of significant interest to extend our analysis to the repeated fraction of the D. virilis genome and to explore in silico digestion in combination with conventional restriction analysis. These analyses help to reveal and describe uncharacterized and highly abundant families of repeats within the genome of this unique in many ways [6, 7], species of Drosophila. Here, we describe three highly abundant families of medium-sized tandem repeats within the D. virilis genome. The consensus repeat units comprising these families were cloned, sequenced and compared with those of the related species D. americana. This analysis emphasizes the validity and versatility of the in silico digestion method in studying various repeats often included in the heterochromatic fraction of genome.
Several families of medium-sized tandem repeats are revealed by in vitro and in silico restriction analysis in D. virilisgenomic DNA
Interestingly, some of the restriction endonucleases produce DNA fragments of the same length. For example, a DNA fragment of ~230 bp is observed after DNA hydrolysis with MspI/HpaII, RsaI and FatI, whereas ~160 bp DNA fragment is clearly observed after digestion with Kzo9I, AluI/AluBI, AspS9I and Bme18I (Figure 1).
The results of our study as well as genome sequencing data show that several families of abundant repetitive elements of medium size exist in the D. virilis genome. Moreover, the presence of same-size fragments in patterns of DNA cleavage with different restriction enzymes is a clear indication that these repetitive sequences are arranged in tandem. Therefore, based on the experimental data depicted in Figure 1, the tandem repeats of approximately 160 bp and 230 bp in length are present in the D. virilis genome in high copy number.
Satellite DNAs, which form heterochromatin regions in eukaryotic genomes, are the major source of tandem repeats in most of the genomes studied. However, Drosophila satellite DNA with a few prominent exceptions, includes very short repetitive sequences of 4–14 bp in length, depending on the species [4, 9, 15].
We analyzed a known structure of the D. virilis genome to find medium-sized tandem repeat candidates. We performed in silico DNA digestion of the currently available draft D. virilis genome sequence, using recognition sites for the restriction endonucleases AluI, Kzo9I and HpaII, according to the earlier published protocols . These restriction enzymes recognition sequences were chosen because they produce clearly visible DNA fragments.
A comparison of the diagrams in Figures 1, 2 and 3 shows consistent results achieved by the three independent approaches, except the presence of an additional DNA peak that is 172 bp in length and clearly observed in Figure 3.
Therefore, according to our results, there are multiple tandem repeats in the D. virilis genome that are much longer than the previously described minisatellite sequences, and they are unrelated to the pvB370 satellite family and pDv family described in this species [9, 15]. The origin and genomic location of 154, 172 and 225 bp fragments that comprise significant parts of the D. virilis genome are discussed below.
225 bp tandem repeats represent intergenic spacers between ribosomal genes
There are unique sites for RsaI and HpaII/MspI within the IGS tandem repeat, and its cleavage with the indicated restriction enzymes should result in the formation of 225 bp DNA fragments and thus correspond to the experimentally observed data (Figure 1). Surprisingly, the consensus IGS tandem repeat contains two sites recognized by the FatI restriction enzyme.
According to Figure 5, two of the eight sequenced HpaII fragments carry a mutation in the first FatI recognition site, which may explain the presence of a 225 bp DNA fragment in the hydrolysis products from this enzyme.
The 154 bp tandem repeat family is apparently derived from Helitrontransposable element
The comparison of the consensus sequence with the REPBASE database [19, 20] shows that the 153–154 bp fragment is derived from the Helitron-2 interspersed repetitive element. The full length of the intact Helitron-2 transposon of D. virilis is 9141 bp, and the 153–154 bp consensus sequence exhibits a high degree of homology to the region found between positions 237 and 1087. This particular region contains four copies of the 153–154 bp repeat within the full length of the consensus sequence of Helitron-2. A map of this Helitron-2 fragment is depicted in Figure 7.
This consensus sequence contains two GATC sites (i.e., Kzo9I recognition sites) in each unit, but we still can see the presence of intact 154 bp fragments in Figure 2, which means that many 154 bp fragments include only one Kzo9I recognition site.
Full-length Helitron-2 elements are not abundant in the D. virilis genome, but there are a lot of truncated copies that mainly include the first 928 bp fragment 5’ of the transposon. In general, Helitron-2 fragments of different length occupy as much as ~5% of D. virilis genome . Thus, the 153–154 bp DNA fragments that are visible in the gel (Figure 1) may be explained by the presence of multiple, predominantly truncated, copies of this transposon representing the remnants of the Helitron amplification process that occurred at some point in the virilis group evolution.
It is noteworthy that abundant DINE-I transposable element has been described in 12 species of Drosophila, including D. virilis. It was proposed that DINE-1 is also related to Helitrons, a family of DNA-mediated transposons . However, our analysis demonstrates that the 154 bp tandem repeats are definitely not included in DINE-I transposon sequences in D. virilis.
Multiple 172 bp tandem repeats are located in the ap gene of D. virilisand most likely in many other sites of the genome
Surprisingly, we do not observe the 172 bp fragment in the experimental digestion (Figure 1), and by in silico restriction analysis (Figure 2) although an investigation of the sequenced D. virilis genome using the Tandem Repeat Finder revealed a high peak at this fragment length (Figure 3). It is noteworthy that there is similarity in the monomer length of many centromeric satellites (often approximately 170 bp), which leads to the assumption that such a repeat unit might reflect uniformity in nucleosome phasing and heterochromatin propagation . However, we failed to find any family consisting of sequences of this length in any studied Drosophila genomes with the exception of D. ananassae .
According to our analysis the number of 171–172 bp repeats in the sequenced D. virilis genome is 7455 and the number of genomic clusters that contain such units is 778. We aligned most of the isolated 171–172 bp sequences and obtained the following consensus sequence:
The BLAST search for homologous sequences was performed and revealed one region of the D. virilis genome which contains multiple copies similar to the consensus sequence.
The structure and sequences of individual repeats included in the apterous cluster and their alignment are summarised in Additional file 1: Figure S1. The analysis indicates that the cluster of 172 bp tandems located near the apterous gene has a rather complex structure. Blocks of 172 bp repeats (2–6 units) are interrupted by sequences of 161 bp and 28–29 bp in length, which represent the fragments of the same basic 172 bp consensus sequence. Short 28–29 bp fragments always end with a hexanucleotide motif that is not homologous to the consensus sequence; after this motif, the hexanucleotide 161 bp fragment lacking 11 bp at the 5’ end is always observed. All 172 bp units contained in the cluster exhibited amazingly high levels of identity (Additional file 1: Figure S1), which suggests the concerted evolution of the sequences. Furthermore, the whole cluster, except for 29 full-size 172 bp units, contains 12 5’-deleted copies of the consensus sequence, 13 fragments 28–29 bp in length and single fragments that are 170, 173 and 175 bp in length.
According to our Tandem Repeat Finder analysis, there are other clusters comprised of homologous 171–172 bp tandem repeats in the D. virilis genome, but the absence of a well annotated genome prevents the determination of their locations. We do not yet know whether the described 172 bp cluster has something to do with apterous function, and we did not find any relevant information in the literature . The role of this family of tandemly arranged sequences may also include regulation of gene activity, as in the case of the 225 bp tandem repeats.
Unlike the 154 bp and 225 bp tandem repeats, DNA fragments of 171–172 bp in length isolated from different genomic regions (data not shown) display a high level of variability in the sequence. This difference may explain why the band that corresponds to the 171–172 bp fragment was not present in the experimental (Figure 1) and in silico digestion (Figure 2).
Investigation of the three major tandem repeats families in the genome
D. americana, another species of the virilisgroup
D. americana belongs to the virilis phylad of the virilis group and is separated from D. virilis by 4–5 million years of divergent evolution [7, 8, 14]. Given the evolutionary relationship between D. virilis and D. americana we were interested in comparing the abundancy of the medium-sized repeats within the genomes of these two species. The D. virilis which basing on most primitive karyotype lacking intraspecific rearrangements, maximal content of satellite DNA among species of the group and many other features appears to be more primitive of the two and may have features in common with the ancestral species of the whole virilis group [7, 8, 14]. Fortunately, the genome of D. americana is now completely annotated  and it is possible to perform BLAST searches for sequences of interest. We used this option to look for the presence of the 225 bp, 154 bp and 172 bp consensus sequences, which were previously detected in the D. virilis genome, in the annotated D. americana genomic sequences.
To our surprise, we failed to detect any sequences homologous to the D. virilis IGS 225 bp repeats in the D. americana genome. This family of repeats most likely appeared in and spread throughout the D. virilis genome after the separation of these species. It will be interesting to find out what repeated sequences are present within IGS of D. americana and other species of the group. It is of note that due to its repetitive nature the ribosomal gene region may be difficult to assemble, and this could be the reason why sequences homologous to the IGS 225 bp repeats have not been found so far in D. americana. Unless a scaffold is found with the whole intergenic region and without the repeat, this possibility cannot be altogether discarded. Interestingly, both sequenced genomes of D. americana do contain approximately the same number (approximately 150 copies) of 154 bp repeats, showing a high level of similarity (90-95%) with the consensus sequence of the 154 bp repeats from D. virilis, as described above. Because this sequence represents a fragment of the well-known Helitron-2 transposon, it is evident that multiple copies of this mobile element, possibly similarly truncated, are also present in the genome of D. americana. Therefore, invasion and massive amplification of Helitron-2 apparently took place early in the evolution of the virilis phylad group. Similar situation was described in the species of D. ananassae subgroup where amplification of another family of 175–200 bp long repeats took place apparently exploring retroposition mechanism .
Similarly, our analysis enabled the detection of multiple copies of 172 bp repeats in the genome of D. americana. Thus, both investigated strains of D. americana contain approximately 180 copies belonging to this family of repeats. We can not say, however, whether the 172 bp repeats in D. americana are clustered, as is the case in the D. virilis apterous region, or scattered throughout the genome. We performed a BLAST search using the 172 bp consensus fragment as a query in other available sequenced Drosophila genomes and did not find any sequences with significant homology to the repeats. Thus, the tandem repeats are apparently specific for certain species of the virilis group of Drosophila. The comparison of the described medium-sized repeats between different species of the virilis group and other related species may be very helpful in understanding the function and origin of these repeated sequences and their possible role in the evolution of close species of Drosophila.
The described method has the potential to learn more about regions containing repeats. The knowledge about long repeats could be used to construct maps of these regions. Even though the digestion method would be laborious, it could potentially help to piece together a genomic sequence of the heterochromatic regions in particularly in species containing large proportion of repeats. Furthermore, the developed method may be used to detect the amplification of various transposable elements (“bursts”) by comparison of the restriction patterns of the individual strains and geographical populations of certain species with those of the basic sequenced species strain with partially or completely annotated genome.
Using in silico digestion in combination with conventional restriction analysis and sequencing of repeated DNA fragments enabled us to isolate and characterize three highly abundant families of medium-sized repeats present in the D. virilis genome. These repeats comprise a significant portion of the D. virilis genome and may have important roles in genome function and structural integrity. Interestingly, two of the described families were also abundant in D. americana, which belongs to the same phylogenetic group. At the present time, we do not know whether these repeats were formed by unequal crossing-over events, replication slippage or the rolling-circle replication mechanism used in the propagation of Helitron-like transposons. This investigation emphasizes the validity and versatility of in silico digestion method for the detection and analysis of the multiple families of tandem repeats that often escape analysis in the process of genome assembling. Importantly, the suggested approach may help to shed light on the structure and composition of heterochromatic regions of the sequenced genomes and help to elucidate general trends in heterochromatin evolution.
In our experiments, we used two strains of D. virilis and one D. melanogaster strain. D. virilis strain 160 is an old laboratory strain that carries recessive markers in all autosomes. A derivative of strain 160 was used to determine the genome sequence of D. virilis. The second D. virilis strain, strain 9, was used for comparison and represents the wild-type strain, caught in 1971 in Batumi, Georgia. In addition, we used the Oregon R strain of D. melanogaster. Flies of all species were reared on standard resin-sugar-yeast-agar medium containing proprionic acid and methylparaben as mold inhibitors.
Isolation and analysis of genomic DNA and mRNA from Drosophilaspecies
Genomic DNA was isolated from flies using a standard phenol-chloroform extraction technique. Hydrolysis reactions were performed for 2 hours, at optimal temperature, in 20 μl of the reaction mixture containing 2 μg of DNA, SE-buffers, as recommended by the manufacturer, and 1 μl of restriction enzyme. Gel electrophoresis using 8% agarose gel was conducted in Tris-acetate buffer to separate the DNA fragments. 2 μg of hydrolyzed DNA were loaded on agarose gel in each run. After electrophoresis, DNA bands were stained with ethidium bromide and photographed in UV light.
To determine 225 bp HpaII fragments sequences, gel piece with visible 225 bp bands was excised out after electrophoresis. DNA fragments were isolated from gel pieces using QIAEX II Gel Extraction Kit (QIAGEN) and ligated with pUC19 plasmid linearized with SmaI. E.coli XL1-blue competent cells were transformed with obtained ligation mixture. Plasmid DNAs from the grown colonies were isolated using NucleoSpin Plasmid Kit (Macherey-Nagel). The sequences of insertions were determined using ABI Prism 310 Genetic Analyzer (Applied Biosystems).
Total RNA and poly (A)-RNA were extracted from the thoraxes or ovaries of adult flies, as previously described , and using the TRiZoL reagent (Sigma). The integrity of each RNA preparation was checked on ethidium bromide-stained 1.2% agarose/Mops-formaldehyde gels.
Radiolabeled probes (32P) were obtained by random priming of repeat-containing DNA fragments isolated from agarose gels. Five micrograms of poly (A) RNA were loaded in each lane of 1.2% agarose/Mops-formaldehyde gel. RNA transfer was performed on Hybond XL in 6xSSC overnight. The membranes were UV cross-linked. Hybridizations were performed overnight at 42°C in 50% formamide, using ultrasensitive hybridization buffer (Ambion).
In situhybridization with polytene chromosomes and cytological analysis
Salivary glands were dissected from D. virilis third-instar larvae in 45% acetic acid and squashed according to the described procedures . For in situ hybridization studies, larvae were grown at 18°C, and a live yeast solution was added to the culture two days before the larvae were analyzed. The DNA probes described above were biotinylated by nick translation using biotin 14-dATP . Chromosomal localizations were made using cytological photographic maps of D. virilis .
Sequence analysis and diagram plotting
The distribution diagrams of Drosophila genomic DNA digestion in silico at recognition sites of several restriction endonucleases were constructed according to the previously described techniques . The Tandem Repeat Finder program  was used to obtain sequences of repeats that were 40–400 bp in length and arranged in tandem within the Drosophila genomic sequences .
Work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project № 09-04-00643 and 09-04-00660, project from “Genofond dynamics” program, Grant of the Program of Molecular and Cellular Biology RAN to M.E.
- Abdurashitov MA, Tomilov VN, Chernukhin VA, Gonchar DA, Degtyarev SK: Mammalian chromosomal DNA digestion with restriction endonucleases in silico. Ovchinnikov bulletin of biotechnology and physical and chemical biology. 2006, 2 (3): 29-38. [Rus] (online english version - http://science.sibenzyme.com/article14_article_27_1.phtml)Google Scholar
- Chernukhin VA, Abdurashitov MA, Tomilov VN, Gonchar DA, Degtyarev SK: Comparative restriction analysis of rat chromosomal DNA in vitro and in silico. Ovchinnikov bulletin of biotechnology and physical and chemical biology. 2006, 2 (3): 39-46. [Rus] (online english version - http://science.sibenzyme.com/article14_article_28_1.phtml)Google Scholar
- Abdurashitov MA, Tomilov VN, Chernukhin VA, Degtyarev SK: A physical map of human Alu repeats cleavage by restriction endonucleases. BMC Genomics. 9: 305-Google Scholar
- Palomeque T, Lorite P: Satellite DNA in insects: a review. Heredity. 2008, 2008 (100): 564-73.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Plohl M, Luchetti A, Mestrovic N, Mantovani B: Satellite DNAs between selfishness and functionality: structure, genomics and evolution of tandem repeats in centromeric heterochromatin. Gene. 2008, 409: 72-82. 10.1016/j.gene.2007.11.013.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gall JG, Atherton DD: Satellite DNA sequences in Drosophila virilis. J Mol Biol. 1974, 85: 633-64. 10.1016/0022-2836(74)90321-0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Morales-Hojas R, Reis M, Vieira CP, Vieira J: Resolving the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the Drosophila virilis group using multilocus data. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2011, 60: 249-58. 10.1016/j.ympev.2011.04.022.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Spicer G, Bell C: Molecular phylogeny of the Drosophila virilis species group (Diptera: Drosophilidae) inferred from mitochondrial 12S and 16S ribosomal RNA genes. Ann Entomol Soc Am. 2002, 95: 156-61. 10.1603/0013-8746(2002)095[0156:MPOTDV]2.0.CO;2.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Evgen'ev MB, Yenikolopov GN, Peunova NI, Ilyin YV: Transsposition of mobile genetic elements in interspecific hybrids of Drosophila. Chromosoma. 1982, 85: 375-86. 10.1007/BF00330360.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Evgen'ev MB, Zelentsova H, Shostak N, Kozitsina M, Barskyi V, Lankenau DH, Corces VG: Penelope, a new family of transposable elements and its possible role in hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila virilis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997, 94: 196-201. 10.1073/pnas.94.1.196.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Evgen'ev MB, Zelentsova H, Poluectova H, Lyozin GT, Veleikodvorskaja V, Pyatkov KI, Zhivotovsky LA, Kidwell MG: Mobile elements and chromosomal evolution in the virilis group of Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000, 97: 11337-11442. 10.1073/pnas.210386297.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Evgen'ev MB, Arkhipova IR: Penelope-like elements - a new class of retroelements: distribution, function and possible evolutionary significance. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2005, 110: 510-521. 10.1159/000084984.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Petrov DA, Schutzman JL, Hartl DL, Lozovskaya ER: Diverse transposable elements are mobilized in hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila virilis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995, 92: 8050-8054. 10.1073/pnas.92.17.8050.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Morales-Hojas R, Vieira CP, Vieira J: The evolutionary history of the transposable element Penelope in the Drosophila virilis group of species. J Mol Evol. 2006, 63: 262-273. 10.1007/s00239-005-0213-1.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Heikkinen E, Launonen V, Muller E, Bachmann L: The pvB370 BamHI satellite DNA family of the Drosophila virilis group and its evolutionary relation to mobile dispersed genetic pDv elements. J Mol Evol. 1995, 41: 604-614.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stage DE, Eickbush TH: Sequence variation within the rRNA gene loci of 12 Drosophila species. Genome Res. 2007, 17: 1888-1897. 10.1101/gr.6376807.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Grimaldi G, Fiorentini P, Di Nocera PP: Spacer promoters are orientation-dependent activators of pre-rRNA transcription in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Cell Biol. 1990, 10: 4667-4677.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mateos M, Markow TA: Ribosomal intergenic spacer (IGS) length variation across the Drosophilinae (Diptera: Drosophilidae). BMC Evol Biol. 2005, 5: 46-10.1186/1471-2148-5-46.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kohany O, Gentles AJ, Hankus L, Jurka J: Annotation, submission and screening of repetitive elements in repbase: RepbaseSubmitter and censor. BMC Bioinformatics. 2006, 7: 474-10.1186/1471-2105-7-474.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jurka J, Kapitonov VV, Pavlicek A, Klonowski P, Kohany O, Walichiewicz J: Repbase update, a database of eukaryotic repetitive elements. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2005, 110: 462-467. 10.1159/000084979.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kapitonov VV, Jurka J: Helitrons in fruit flies. Repbase Reports. 2007, 7: 127-32.Google Scholar
- Yang HP, Barbash DA: Abundant and species-specific Dine-I transposable elements in 12 Drosophila genomes. Genome Biol. 2008, 9 (2): R39-10.1186/gb-2008-9-2-r39.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Connell P, Rosbash M: Sequence, structure, and codon preference of the Drosophila ribosomal protein 49 gene. Nucl Acids Res. 1984, 12: 5495-5514. 10.1093/nar/12.13.5495.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nozawa M, Kumagai M, Aotsuka T, Tamura K: Unusual evolution of interspersed repeat sequences in the Drosophila ananassae subgroup. Mol Biol Evol. 2006, 23: 981-987. 10.1093/molbev/msj105.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cohen B, McGuffin ME, Pfeifle C, Segal D, Cohen SM: Apterous, a gene required for imaginal disc development in Drosophila encodes a member of the LIM family of developmental regulatory proteins. Genes Dev. 1992, 6: 715-729. 10.1101/gad.6.5.715.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bergman CM, Pfeiffer BD, Rincón-Limas DE, Hoskins RA, Gnirke A, Mungall CJ, Wang AM, Kronmiller B, Pacleb J, Park S, Stapleton M, Wan K, George RA, de Jong PJ, Botas J, Rubin GM, Celniker SE: Assessing the impact of comparative genomic sequence data on the functional annotation of the Drosophila genome. Genome Biol. 2002, 3 (12): RESEARCH0086-PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nuno A, Morales-Hojas FR, Reis M, Rocha H, Vieira C, Nolte V, Schlötterer C, Vieira J: Drosophila americana as a model species for comparative studies on the molecular basis of phenotypic variation. Genome Biol Evol. 2013, 5: 661-679. 10.1093/gbe/evt037.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schostak N, Pyatkov K, Zelentsova E, Arkhipova I, Shagin D, Shagina I, Mudrik E, Blintsov A, Clark I, Finnegan DJ, Evgen'ev M: Molecular dissection of Penelope transposable element regulatory machinery. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008, 6: 2522-2529.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lim JK: In situ hybridization with biotinylated DNA. Dros Inf Serv. 1993, 72: 73-77.Google Scholar
- Gubenko IS, Evgen’ev MB: Cytological and linkage maps of Drosophila virilis chromosomes. Genetica. 1984, 65: 127-139. 10.1007/BF00135277.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Benson G: Tandem repeats finder: a program to analyze DNA sequences. Nucleic Acids Res. 1999, 27: 573-80. 10.1093/nar/27.2.573.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Drosophila 12 genomes consortium. Evolution of genes and genomes on the Drosophila phylogeny. Nature. 2007, 450: 203-218. 10.1038/nature06341.Google Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.