Skip to content


You're viewing the new version of our site. Please leave us feedback.

Learn more

BMC Genomics

Open Access

Nodular goiter and hyperplastic lesion of the thyroid share common deregulated expression profiles

  • Ohoud Subhi1,
  • Nadia Baqtian1,
  • Manar Ata1,
  • Sajjad Karim1,
  • Khalid Al-Ghamdi2,
  • Osman Abdel Al-Hamour3,
  • Mohammed Hussein Al-Qahtani1,
  • Hans-Juergen Schulten1Email author and
  • Jaudah Al-Maghrabi4, 5
BMC Genomics201415(Suppl 2):P70

Published: 2 April 2014


Proliferative thyroid lesions including nodular goiter and hyperplastic lesion are very common in the Middle East and North African (MENA) region [1]. Hyperplastic lesions are also regarded as a subcategory of goiter. High-density expression profiles in these benign thyroid lesions are not surveyed in detail [2]. In an effort to establish gene expression profiles that distinguish both lesions from each other and from normal thyroid (TN) tissue, we employed state-of-the-art oligonucleotide microarray technology.

Materials and methods

Whole transcript expression profiles were generated in 17 goiters, 14 hyperplastic lesions and 7 TN samples utilizing Affymetrix HuGene 1.0 ST arrays. We used the default analysis method for generating a threshold of significance for differential expression (p-value with a false discovery rate ≤ 0.05 and a fold change > 2). Partek Genomics Suite and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software packages were utilized to interpret data sets.


Expression profiles of goiters and hyperplastic lesions were highly related and no transcripts were differentially expressed between these two thyroid lesions under the given statistical threshold values. However, more than 10000 genes were differentially expressed between goiters, as well as hyperplastic lesions, and TN samples. The most differentially expressed transcripts were in fact downregulated in both thyroid lesions in comparison to TN samples and include genes like olfactory receptor, family 6, subfamily N (OR6N2), glial cells missing homolog 1, Drosophila (GCM1), family with sequence similarity 138, member B (FAM138B), prostate-specific P704P mRNA (P704P), and olfactory receptor, family 5, subfamily H, member 14 (OR5H14). The most upregulated transcripts in goiters and hyperplastic lesions vs TN samples include genes as cytochrome c oxidase assembly protein COX15 homolog (COX15), dyskeratosis congenita 1, dyskerin (DKC1), and DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily A, member 2 (DNAJA2). Networks which were most deregulated in goiter and hyperplastic lesion in comparison to TN tissue share similar functions although certain pathways seem to be differentially affected in both thyroid lesions.


Our study indicates that goiter and hyperplastic lesion share common deregulated expression profiles in comparison to TN tissue. As a certain number of goiters and hyperplastic lesions bear the capacity to develop to thyroid neoplasms, knowledge of deregulated genes in these lesions may help to identify patients which are at elevated risk for developing thyroid carcinoma. Further studies have to reveal which expression signatures in these benign thyroid lesions are in common with malignant cases.

This study was supported by King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) grants 09-BIO707-03 and 09-BIO820-03.

Authors’ Affiliations

Center of Excellence in Genomic Medicine Research, King Abdulaziz University
Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University
Department of Surgery, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University
Department of Pathology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center


  1. Schulten HJ, Salama S, Al-Ahmadi A, Al-Mansouri Z, Mirza Z, Al-Ghamdi K, Al-Hamour OA, Huwait E, Gari M, Al-Qahtani MH, et al: Comprehensive Survey of HRAS, KRAS, and NRAS Mutations in Proliferative Thyroid Lesions from An Ethnically Diverse Population. Anticancer Res. 2013, 33: 4779-4784.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Griffith OL, Melck A, Jones SJ, Wiseman SM: Meta-analysis and meta-review of thyroid cancer gene expression profiling studies identifies important diagnostic biomarkers. J Clin Oncol. 2006, 24: 5043-5051.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar


© Subhi et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.