- Research article
- Open Access
Analysis of Sry duplications on the Rattus norvegicus Y-chromosome
© Prokop et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
- Received: 22 March 2013
- Accepted: 12 November 2013
- Published: 14 November 2013
Gene copy number variation plays a large role in the evolution of genomes. In Rattus norvegicus and other rodent species, the Y-chromosome has accumulated multiple copies of Sry loci. These copy number variations have been previously linked with changes in phenotype of animal models such as the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). This study characterizes the Y-chromosome in the Sry region of Rattus norvegicus, while addressing functional variations seen in the Sry protein products.
Eleven Sry loci have been identified in the SHR with one (nonHMG Sry) containing a frame shift mutation. The nonHMGSry is found and conserved in the related WKY and SD rat strains. Three new, previously unidentified, Sry loci were identified in this study (Sry3BII, Sry4 and Sry4A) in both SHR and WKY. Repetitive element analysis revealed numerous LINE-L1 elements at regions where conservation is lost among the Sry copies. In addition we have identified a retrotransposed copy of Med14 originating from spliced mRNA, two autosomal genes (Ccdc110 and HMGB1) and a normal mammalian Y-chromosome gene (Zfy) in the Sry region of the rat Y-chromosome. Translation of the sequences of each Sry gene reveals eight proteins with amino acid differences leading to changes in nuclear localization and promoter activation of a Sry-responsive gene. Sry-β (coded by the Sry2 locus) has an increased cytoplasmic fraction due to alterations at amino acid 21. Sry-γ has altered gene regulation of the Sry1 promoter due to changes at amino acid 76.
The duplication of Sry on the Rattus norvegicus Y-chromosome has led to proteins with altered functional ability that may have been selected for functions in addition to testis determination. Additionally, several other genes not normally found on the Y-chromosome have duplicated new copies into the region around the Sry genes. These suggest a role of active transposable elements in the evolution of the mammalian Y-chromosome in species such as Rattus norvegicus.
- Rattus norvegicus
- Copy number variations
- Y-chromosome evolution
The testis determining gene Sry on the mammalian Y-chromosome triggers the testis development pathway in placental mammals . It encodes a protein that is composed of a highly conserved three helix HMG domain with additional hinge and bridge domains. Variations are found in the N- and C-terminal domains among species. In most mammals, Sry is found as a single locus; however, rodent species [2–5], have been reported to show copy number variation (CNV). CNV of Sry has been detected in humans exposed to radiation or those with sex chromosome related anomalies [6, 7]. In Rattus norvegicus, multiple loci of Sry are expressed and code for proteins with altered amino acid sequences . These loci have been suggested to function in the development of increased blood pressure in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) compared to the normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) . One locus, Sry3, has been detected in SHR but not in WKY, and codes for a protein that has amino acid differences altering promoter regulation of renin-angiotensin system genes . The entire rat Y-chromosome for Rattus norvegicus has yet to be assembled, thus limiting full understanding of gene duplication and divergence of Sry copies. Using newly deposited BAC clone sequences from the SHR rat strain (SHR/Akr), we have localized the Sry copies relative to each other, identifying several new Sry loci. The multiple copies of Sry code for proteins with amino acid variations resulting in functional changes to promoter activity and nuclear localization.
Identification of Sry Copies in the Rattus norvegicus SHR strain
BAC sequences used to assemble the Sry region of the SHR Y-chromosome
Sry4A, Sry3C, Sry1
Sry3B, Sry3BII, Sry2
Newly identified Sry copies in other Rattus norvegicus strains
Four novel Sry sequences (nonHMG Sry, Sry4, Sry4A and Sry3BII) were identified in the SHR/Akr in this paper. Of these, the nonHMG Sry sequence was confirmed from genomic DNA, with 100% sequence homology in SHR/Akr [GenBank: KC215139], WKY/Akr [KC215140], and SD/hsd [KC215141] strains. Sry4, Sry4A and Sry3BII were confirmed in both SHR/Akr and WKY/Akr strains using PCR reactions and selective restriction digests designed to differentiate loci based on PCR products (Additional file 1: Figure S7).
Identification of other loci in the Sry region of the SHR Y-chromosome
The zinc finger on the Y (Zfy) locus is found between Sry4 and the nonHMG Sry. This locus is found on many other mammalian Y-chromosomes near Sry. In addition to Zfy, we have identified a possible Med14 locus between Sry4 and the nonHMG Sry. Normally Med14 is found on the mammalian X-chromosome, where it contains 31 exons separated by large introns. The form identified on the Y-chromosome of SHR is spliced, containing 30 of the normal 31 exons of the long form Med14 of the X-chromosome (Additional file 1: Figure S8). Located 1kB from the Med14Y sequence (red, Figure 1) is an LTR/ERVK element (purple, Figure 1). The presence of both an LTR element and spliced exons suggests that this copy has been retrotransposed onto the Y-chromosome. The protein coded by Med14Y would be highly homologous to the X-chromosome Med14 (Additional file 1: Figure S9) if it could be transcribed and translated. In addition to Med14Y, we have identified a Ccdc110-like locus (Contig 1, after Sry4A) and a HMGB1-like locus (Contig 2, between Sry2 and Sry3A, Figure 1).
Sry protein sequence comparison
Sry proteins encoded on the SHR Y-chromosome with GenBank accession codes
Sequenced BACs (s)
Confirmed sequence in SHR/Akr
Confirmed sequence in WKY/Akr
Not yet identified in BACs
Sry protein functional variations
Multiple Sry loci in Rattus norvegicus are known to be expressed . Sequencing of the SHR/Akr rat Y chromosome is under progress by the Y chromosome project (http://www.genome.gov/25521746). Identifying and labeling all the Sry loci and functional variations are of importance for both annotating Y-chromosome sequence data and for understanding how each of these Sry loci functions. The SHR/Akr strain has been shown to have loci on the Y-chromosome that are associated with blood pressure increases [13, 14] and other sympathetic nervous system phenotypes reviewed in . Animals with the Y-chromosome of SHR and WKY autosomes have higher blood pressure than WKY males . Studies have revealed the inability to amplify the Sry3 locus, present in SHR, from WKY genomic DNA, suggesting a potential increase in CNV of SHR over WKY . Delivery of the coding sequence of either Sry1 or Sry3 but not Sry2 into the kidney of normotensive WKY rats induces a blood pressure increase through the renin-angiotensin system and the sympathetic nervous system. With Sry3 present in SHR but not detected in WKY , this additional copy of an Sry gene (Sry3) may be largely responsible for the blood pressure elevation seen in Y-chromosome crosses of the consomic strains [13, 14]. Y-chromosome sequence analysis has revealed at least eleven Sry loci on the Y-chromosome of Rattus norvegicus SHR/Akr that code for nine different proteins. It is possible that additional loci exist and have yet to be sequenced; sequencing of the SHR/Akr Y-chromosome is still underway. We do not know which Sry locus codes for testis determination in Rattus norvegicus or if multiple loci contribute to this function. It may be possible that any of the ten Sry loci (excluding the nonHMG Sry) could determine sex if expressed with proper developmental timing. Four new loci were detected in this current study. These were previously unidentified due to an insertion of DNA after the 3’ untranslated region in these newly identified loci, preventing PCR amplification with the primer sets previously used. New primer sets and restriction digests allowed us to identify these new loci in both SHR and WKY rats.
Compiled contigs for the Y-chromosome region containing the Sry loci in Rattus norvegicus allow for identification of possible mechanisms of gene duplications. Of the four loci identified in our contigs that are not Sry (Zfy, Med14, Ccdc110, and HMGB1), several are flanked by repetitive elements that may have contributed to locus positioning on the Y-chromosome. An LTR/ERVK element was identified 5’ of the start codon of the Med14Y. This Med14Y is highly homologous to the X-chromosome Med14, however it is missing the normal introns, suggesting retrotransposition of a mature mRNA onto the Y-chromosome of rat. An LTR element has also been identified 3’ of the Zfy and 5’ of the Ccdc110 loci. Currently we do not know the function or conservation (presence and spatial organization) of these loci on the Y-chromosome in other rat species. Future work will be required to determine the dynamic gene evolution occurring in rat Y-chromosome evolution.
The largest conserved fragment of DNA sequence within the contigs is between Sry4 and Sry4A, with a large region of 3’ conservation (around 43 kB). Analysis of the conservation revealed a LINE L1 element (cyan, Figure 1) conserved at the point where homology is lost; this LINE L1 appears to have the proper sequences to code for proteins of both ORFs required for LINE L1 transposition. Flanking several other loci (Sry3C and Sry3A) are insertions of LINE L1 elements relative to the other loci, suggesting more recent LINE L1 insertions after copy number increased. SOX genes have been shown to regulate the promoters of LINE-L1 elements  suggesting a potential interplay between Sry and LINE-L1. These elements, as well as sequence variations, may alter the expression of the various loci, as has already been shown . The Sry2 gene is preferentially expressed in adult adrenal glands relative to testis, while the combination of Sry1, Sry3 and Sry3C is expressed at a higher level in the testis relative to adrenal. The Sry3C locus shares a high level of conservation with the 3’ end of Sry2 and a lower level with Sry1. These observations suggest that Sry3C may have resulted from the original duplication event and then further duplicated and differentiated to give the remaining Sry3 subgroup members. Identifying the mechanism of duplication and order of events is complicated by a continual change to all loci after the duplication events occurred. This may be simplified by understanding the organization of the Y-chromosome and Sry sequences in other Rattus norvegicus strains and other rodent species. For example, our initial sequence analysis comparing the Rattus norvegicus and Tokudaia muenninki Sry copies did not reveal any connections between the duplicated copies at either the DNA or amino acid level, indicating that Sry duplication has occurred more than once. Understanding the duplication events in the rat may help to explain duplications of SRY seen in humans exposed to radiation or with Turner syndrome [6, 7].
Amino acid differences among the proteins coded by the multiple Sry loci result in functional variation. From the eleven loci, we predict nine protein sequences (Sryα-Sryθ and the nonHMGSry). Sryβ has several amino acid variations in nuclear localization sites (amino acids 4 and 21) and also the C-terminal end (Figure 2 and Figure 11). Sry protein localizes to the nucleus using two different localization signals (NLS) . The first NLS is found as a bipartite signal known to interact with calmodulin [20–22]. Amino acid 4 falls into the NLS in the first of the bipartite sequences and amino acid 21 in the second. Mutations of amino acid 21 in Sryα decreased nuclear localization, and models for the interaction between Sry and calmodulin suggest a decreased interaction when amino acid 21 is a His (Additional file 1: Figure S12).
All the Sry3 loci (Sryγ-ζ proteins) contain a threonine at amino acid 76, rather than the normal proline. A proline is found at this amino acid in all human SOX genes (and all other vertebrate and invertebrate Sox genes analyzed to date by our lab) and all mammalian Sry sequences . Variation at amino acid 76 in hSRY is associated with sex reversal . This suggests a high degree of conservation, likely required for proper DNA bend angle, protein recruitment, and gene regulation . Amino acid 76 falls in the second NLS which is thought to work through importin-β1 . Both Sryα and Sryγ localize to the nucleus (Figure 7), and changes from a proline to a threonine at amino acid 76 do not seem to alter nuclear localization. Promoter activity assays show that the proline to threonine change in Sryα leads to changes in activity. Modeling approaches and proline to threonine mutations also showed altered regulation of renin-angiotensin system promoters  in addition to the Sry1 promoter in this study. Mutations on our Sryα and Sryγ constructs at amino acid 38 altered promoter regulation for Sryγ only. This suggests that changes to amino acid 38 may compensate for the loss of activity seen when also changing amino acid 76. It should be noted as two amino acids vary between these constructs, Sryα P76T and Sryγ Q38H yield the same mutant proteins as do Sryα H38Q and Sryγ T76P. The Sry1 promoter regulation for these constructs showed no difference when compared to each other, and serve as an internal control to validate that the changes in regulation could only be due to changes at these two amino acids.
Sryη and Sryθ proteins (produced from the Sry4 and Sry4A loci) show amino acid variation in the bridge domain. The Sry4 genes have not been cloned and analyzed for expression, so Sryα was chosen for mutagenesis. Amino acid 76 (shown to result in significant functional alterations when a Thr and not a Pro) is conserved among Sryη/Sryθ and Sryα, therefore making Sryα a better choice than the Sryγ or Sryβ protein constructs to use for mutagenesis. Analysis of amino acid variations among the multiple loci, suggests that Sry4 and Sry4A are very old loci as they alone (relative to the other Sry copies) share amino acid 83 with mouse (Additional file 1: Figure S10). With the variations of Sryη and Sryθ amino acids falling in the bridge domain, they may alter the interaction with proteins known to interact through the bridge domain of Sry, such as the KRAB containing proteins , resulting in altered epigenetic gene silencing of Sryη/Sryθ regulated genes .
The C-terminal end contains the largest area of variation among the Sry proteins of Rattus norvegicus. There are no known structures for regions outside the HMG box of Sry. With the lack of high sequence conservation of the C-terminal end with other species, it is difficult to determine the importance or functionality of this domain. It has been suggested that the C-terminal end can interact with and stabilize DNA binding ; however, it is also likely that this domain serves to recruit other proteins to the DNA. Based on the number of charged amino acids on the surface of the C-terminus (Figure 11A), which also contains a hydrophobic packed structure (Additional file 2), interactions with other proteins (yet to be identified) are possible. The stretch of 13 amino acids deleted in Sryβ alters regulational ability of Sry as does the deletion of the entire Q-rich C-terminal domain. These results support the importance of this region in rat Sry function, even though the region does not share conservation with most other mammalian Sry sequences. It is possible that functions of the Sry N-terminus in all other mammalian species [29, 30] have been translocated to the C-terminus of rodent Sry. Since the structure of Sry places both the N and C-terminus flanking the HMG box in the same spatial area, one could easily be functionally substituted for the other.
Current work is underway to compile and annotate the Y-chromosome of the SHR/Akr strain. In labeling the multiple loci of Sry, care needs to be taken in naming as we show in this study and others that there are functional variations in the proteins, with differential expression patterns of each. Understanding the mechanisms of the gene duplications seen in this animal model may lend insights into the duplication and transpositions of Sry in many human diseases such as sex reversal. Ultimately, studies such as this allow us to begin to understand evolution of the lesser studied Y-chromosome in an animal model to understand complex diseases such as hypertension, while also addressing the evolution of the Y-chromosome in mammals.
Currently we know of eleven Sry copies on the Rattus norvegicus Y-chromosome with additional copies of Zfy, Med14, Ccdc110, and HMGB1 in this region. Transposable elements seem to play an active role in the duplication and translocation of these genes. The duplication events have led to Sry proteins that have amino acid variations that lead to functional alterations in nuclear localization and transcriptional activity. These results show some of the dynamic processes involved in the evolution of the Y-chromosome and suggest importance in numerous disease models such as hypertension.
Identification of Sry proteins
The sequence of the Sry1 locus (EU984075) was blasted against the NCBI Rattus norvegicus sequences. Protein sequences were translated from BAC clones or sequenced constructs using Expasy translate, and aligned by hand. Several new loci (Sry3BII, Sry4 and Sry4A) were confirmed by PCR using primers specific to these loci, JP1R (5’-ccaaatacagcaaggctgag) and JF8L (5’tgtaaggggtaaaagctagtatcc) primer set, with Phusion Hot Start II (Thermo Scientific) on both SHR and WKY genomic DNA (cycling conditions: 98°C-3 min, 98°C -30 sec, 56.8°C -30 sec, 72°C -45 sec, repeats steps 2–4 35 times, 72°C -5 min, 4°C-hold). Reactions were run on 1% agarose gels and the bands were isolated using IBI gel extraction kit (MidSci). Fragments were used in either restriction digest with Afl II or a nested PCR using L-BamH1/KozakSry (ctaggatccgaaccatggagggccatgtcaag) and R-Not1-StopcodonSry (ctagcggccgctcgtggaactggtgctgct) with GoTaq polymerase (Promega; cycling conditions: 94°C-4 min, 94°C-1 min,60°C-35 sec,72°C-1 min, repeat steps 2–4 30 times, 72°C-7 min, 4°C-hold).
Contig design, repeat detection, sequence alignments, and phylogenetics
Contigs were built using the sequenced BACs of Table 1. In short, all sequences were compiled with Sequencher 4.5 (Gene Codes) using max inputs for alignments. For short incomplete BACs, the ends (at least 3000 base pairs) were removed to exclude low sequence depth areas. The previously identified Sry sequences were then aligned to the contig with 100% identity. Repetitive sequences were identified using RepeatMasker  with abblast, default speed, rat as the DNA source, no contamination checks, and simple repeats not masked. To compare the rat transposable elements on the Y-chromosome, mouse and human Y-chromosome sequences flanking the respective Sry were used (using the DNA source of the respective species for the RepeatMasker analysis). The Sry loci were aligned to each of the other loci to identify the conserved fragment size using Clustal Omega  with default settings. A minimal conserved fragment size around Sry was identified for all the Sry loci present in the contigs. Phylogenetics were performed using MEGA-5  on this minimal fragment or the ORF for each of the rat Sry loci with hSRY [GenBank: CCDS14772] or mSry [GenBank: CCDS30545] using maximum likelihood with the JTT model and 500 bootstrap replications.
Mutagenesis and promoter cloning
Mutations of the rat Sry pEF-1 expression vectors were created with site directed mutagenesis using Phusion Hot start Taq (Thermo Scientific). The respective primer set for each mutation (F-Sry1H38Q: atcagcaagcagctgggatatcagtgg, R-Sry1H38Q: ctctgaattctgcatgctgggattctg; F-Sry1P76T: aaatatcagactcatcgaagggttaaagtg, R-Sry1P76T: atagtttggatatttctctctgtgtagggt; F-Sry1P83S: tatactttgcagcgtgaagt, R-Sry1P83S: actcctctgtgacactttaa; F-Sry1L98V: ctgcaatgggacaacaacct, R-Sry1L98V: caggttgtacacttttgttgagg; F-Sry3Q38H: atcagcaagcatctgggatatcagtgg, R-Sry3Q38H: ctctgaattctgcatgctgggattctg; F-Sry3T76P: aaatatcagcctcatcgaagggttaaagtg, R-Sry3T76P: atagtttggatatttctctctgtgtagggt; F-hSRYQ93H: atcagcaagcatctgggataccagtgg, R-hSRYQ93H: ctctgagtttcgcattctgggattctc; F-hSRYP131T: aagtatcgaactcgtcggaaggcgaagatg, R-hSRYP131T: ataattcgggtatttctctctgtgcatggc) were phosphorylated with T4 polynucleotide kinase (Fermentas) and used in PCR. T4 DNA ligase (Fermentas) was used to ligate linear vectors and these were transformed into TAM-1 competent E. coli (Active Motif). Sryα/γ(del) constructs were created by amplifying Sry from each construct with L-BamH1/KozakSry and R-Not1-StopcodonSry and digested with Cvi QI which cuts at base pair 294. The C-terminal end of Sryβ (containing a 13 amino acid deletion from Sryα/γ) was ligated together with the N-terminus of Sryα/γ. For Sryβ(+QR) the N-terminus of Sryβ was ligated with the 13 amino acid larger fragment of Sryα. An HMG only construct (Sryα(HMGbox)) was created by amplifying Sryα with L-BamH1/KozakSry and R-SryXbaBoxOnly (ctctagactgtggcactttaaccc), followed by T4 ligation to re-circularize the vector. Constructs without the C-terminal Q-rich region were created by PCR with L-BamH1/KozakSry and R-SryXba-QR (ctctagatgggtatccagtgg) generating a 142 amino acid protein from each Sry (Sryα(−QR), Sryβ(−QR), Sryγ(−QR)).
The two promoter constructs used in luciferase assays were the Sry1 and AR600 constructs. A pGL3 rat Sry1 promoter construct (−3317/+10, +1 designating the proposed transcriptional start site) was created by amplification from cloned Sry1 DNA [GenBank: KC215142] with L-Sry1NheI (5’-CTATGCTAGCTCCATACCAAGAAGGCAGTTG-3’) and R-Sry1HindIII (5’-CGCAAGCTTAAACCCCTGTGGATTGTAAATG-3’). The rat Sry1 promoter contains multiple potential Sry binding sites as determined by MatInspector (Genomatix). This fragment was cloned into pGL3 with Nhe I and Hind III restriction digest. The pGL3 AR600 construct (containing the 5’ UTR of AR, with several potential Sry binding sites) was created by PCR with R-ARNco (gtaccatggtttagcttgtctctagcttccacc) and LARSma600 (cacccgggtaactccctttggctga) and cloned in with Nco I and Sma I restriction digest and ligation. All clones and mutations were sequence confirmed using BigDye Terminator chemistry on ABI 3130xl genetic analyzer (Applied Biosystems).
Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA)
Sry1 DNA was inserted into the pIVEX 2.4 with GoTaq (Promega) PCR using 5’- gcgcccgggctagtggaactggtgct and 5’- gcggcccatggagggccatgtcaag with NcoI and Sma I digests, followed by T4 ligation. Vector was transformed into BL21 (DE3) competent E. coli (NEB). A single isolated colony of cells was inoculated into 5 mL terrific broth containing 50 ug/mL Ampicillin and grown to OD600 of 0.8 at 37°C. Cells were induced with 0.75 mM IPTG and incubated at 37°C for three hours. Cells were collected at 5000×g for 10 min and frozen at −80°C until lysis. Cells were lysed with 1 mL of 1× CelLytic B (Sigma-Aldrich), 2 mg/mL Lysozyme, 0.25 mM Leupeptin, 1 mM PMSF, 50 Units DNase, 25 mM NaF, 25 mM MgCl in phosphate buffered imidazole. Cells were passed through a 25 gauge needle multiple times to complete lysis and the lysate was centrifuged at 10,000 × g for 20 min.
Freshly annealed primers (5’-CATACTGCGGGGGTGATTGTTCAGGATCATACTGCG-3’ and antisense), containing a 5’ conjugated biotin (IDT) on the sense strand (primers were previously used by another lab to confirm hSRY-DNA binding ) were prepared in primer annealing buffer (10 mM Tris, 1 mM EDTA, 100 mM NaCl, pH 8.0) at a final concentration of 10 μM. Annealed primers were diluted to 250 fmol/μL. Non-denaturing TBE polyacrylamide gels (6%) were casted in a 0.75 mm spaced glass cassette (Bio-Rad) with a 10 well comb and pre-electrophoresed for 1 hr at 100 V in 0.5× TBE. Control binding experiments were setup using the LightShift EMSA optimization and control kit (Thermo). All reactions contained 2 μL 10× binding buffer, 1 μL 50% glycerol, 1 μL Poly(dI-dC), and 1 μL 1% NP-40. For the respective reactions, 2 μL Biotin-EBNA control DNA, 2 μL Unlabeled EBNA control DNA, 1 μL EBNA overexpression extract, 2 μL Biotin-Sry-DNA, 2 μL Unlabeled-Sry-DNA (2 pM), and 2 μL Sryα cell lysate sample sizes were used. All reactions were brought to 20 μL total with molecular water. Sryα lysates ranging from 0.5 to 3 μL in 0.5 μL increments were used to show a concentration dependence of DNA binding. Reactions were incubated at room temperature for 20 min. Samples were run on a TBE gel at 100 V for 45 min. A Biodyne B Nylon Membrane (Thermo) was soaked in 0.5× TBE for 10 min. When electrophoresis was complete, the gel was transferred to the membrane in a semi-dry horizontal transfer system at 75 mA for 30 min. The membrane was then dried for twenty minutes at room temperature, cross linked using UV light and detection was performed as recommended in the LightShift Chemiluminescent EMSA kit (Thermo). ImageJ (NIH) was used for densitometry analysis.
CHO-K1 cells (1.25 × 104 cells/cm2) used for immunocytology were seeded onto LabTek™ 16 well glass chamber slides (Nunc™) in HAM’s F12K medium (Sigma) supplemented with 10 mM HEPES, 30 mM sodium bicarbonate and 10% fetal bovine serum (Atlanta Biologicals) in a humidified atmosphere at 37°C with 5% CO2. After 24 hours cells were transfected with 300 ng plasmid DNA (Sry pEF1expression vector) using 1 μl ExGen500 in 20 μl 150 mM NaCl. After 24 hours of incubation all chambers were washes twice with 1× PBS and fixed for 5 min in ice cold methanol. Cell were incubated 25 min in blocking solution (1× PBS containing 10% normal rabbit serum and 3% nonfat dry milk) followed by incubating one hour with the primary antibodies, goat anti-Myc epitope (Bethyl Laboratories, Inc.) or goat anti-mouse Sry E-19 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc.) diluted 1:450 and 1:100 respectively in diluted blocking solution (2% normal rabbit serum, 0.6% nonfat milk) at 22°C. After four washes with 1× PBS, the secondary antibody, a rabbit anti-goat IgG-Cy3™ conjugate (Sigma-Aldrich, Inc.) diluted 1:3500 in blocker diluted to 4% normal rabbit serum, was added in 1.2% nonfat milk and incubated 45 min at 37°C. After two washes in 1× PBS, VectaShield mounting medium containing DAPI (Vector Laboratories) was applied and images were captured using a broad range excitation filter (530 – 550 nm) on an Olympus BX60 with DP71 digital camera and DP Controller software. Controls to ensure antibody specificity included CHO transfected as described above with Sryα incubated with normal goat serum or PBS in place of a primary antibody. In all experiments at least 12–25 stained cells were observed per transfection.
CHO-K1 cells were grown to 1.0 × 105 cells/cm2 on 100 mm plates (Nunc™) as described previously. Each plate was transfected with 7.5 μg respective Sry pEF1 expression vector that was complexed with 25 μl ExGen500 and 150 mM NaCl was used to bring the total reaction volume to 1 mL. Complexes were applied to CHO in 9 mL fresh medium and centrifuged at 280 × g 5 min. Following a 24 hour incubation, medium was removed, plates were washed with 1× PBS and cells were trypsinized, pelleted (280 × g, 5 min.) and cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins were separated using the reagents and protocol supplied in the ProteoJET™ Cytoplasmic and Nuclear Protein Extraction Kit (Fermentas). Fractions generated were quantified by Bradford Assay (Thermo) and then subjected to SDS PAGE and western blot analysis.
Cytoplasmic and nuclear extracts (20 μg) were separated on 13.5% polyacrylamide gels and proteins were semidry transferred (1 mAmp/cm2) to PVDF membranes. Blots were blocked 1 hr at room temperature in 1× TBS containing 5% nonfat dry milk and 0.1% Tween-20. Primary antibodies used to detect Sry proteins include a goat anti-mouse Sry E-19 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc. ) and a goat anti-Myc epitope (Bethyl Laboratories, Inc. Laboratories). Both antibodies were diluted in blocking solution at 1:300 and 1:1000 respectively and incubated for at least 1 hr at room temperature. Following two washes in 1× PBS, the secondary antibody, donkey anti-goat HRP conjugate (Bethyl Laboratories, Inc. Laboratories) was diluted 1:6,000 in blocking solution and incubated 1 hr at room temperature. Bands were detected using SuperSignal West Pico Chemiluminescent Substrate (Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc.).
Cotransfections and luciferase assays
Transfection into CHO-K1 cells was performed using 500 ng pGL3 reporter vector, 50 ng of pEF1 expression vector, 500 pg Renilla control vector and 2uL Turbofect (Fermentas) into 5x104 cells preplated in a 24 well plate 24 hours prior to transfections. Cells were lysed 24 hours post transfection and luciferase assays performed with Dual-Luciferase reported assay system (Promega) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Statistics were performed using JMP software with statistical significance of p < 0.05. ANOVAs were performed followed by individual student’s t-tests. All error bars are presented as the standard error of the mean.
Modeling protein structures and molecular dynamic simulations
Models of rat Sry tertiary structure were created using I-TASSER  and aligned to DNA using the PDB structure 1j46 of human SRY  and energy minimized with YASARA  with water at 0.998 g/mL and AMBER03 force field . Models for the C-terminal end of Sryα were created with QUARK . The ten models were run in molecular dynamic simulations for 2 nanoseconds and observed for energy and residue movement. The best model (model 4) as determined by maximal hydrophobic packing in md simulation, model quality (determined with the knowledge-based potential of YASARA2), and energy minimization was manually added onto the model of the HMG box bound to DNA, forming the peptide bond, followed by energy minimizations using the AMBER03 force field in water.
Availability of supporting data
"The data sets supporting the results of this article are available in the GenBank repository, [Accession codes: KC215139, KC215140, KC215141, KC215142; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/]".
BAC clones were mapped and sequenced as part of the rat Y chromosome sequencing project (http://www.genome.gov/25521746), a collaboration between the Whitehead Institute (Helen Skaletsky, Sara Zaghlul, Laura G. Brown, Jennifer F. Hughes, David C. Page) and the Baylor College of Medicine Human Genome Sequencing Center. We thank this group for help in analysis and for providing Tiling paths of the BAC sequences. This research was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health (1R01 HL71579-01A3), American Heart Association (Predoctoral fellowship 11PRE7380033 to JWP), Ohio Board of Regents Choose Ohio First, and The University of Akron.
- Koopman P, Gubbay J, Vivian N, Goodfellow P, Lovellbadge R: Male development of chromosomally female mice transgenic for SRY. Nature. 1991, 351: 117-121. 10.1038/351117a0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nagamine CM: The testis-determining gene, SRY, exists in multiple copies in Old World rodents. Genet Res. 1994, 64: 151-159. 10.1017/S001667230003281X.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Biachi NO, Biachi MS, Bailliet G, de la Chapette A: Characterization and sequencing of the sex determining region Y gene (Sry) in Akodon (Cricetidea) species with sex reversed females. Chromosoma. 1993, 102: 389-395. 10.1007/BF00360403.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lundrigan BL, Tucker PK: Evidence for multiple functional copies of the male sex-determining locus, Sry, in African murine rodents. J Mol Evol. 1997, 45: 60-65. 10.1007/PL00006202.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bullejos M, Sanchez A, Burgos M, Jimenez R, Diaz de la Guardia R: Multiple mono- and polymorphic Y-linked copies of the SRY HMG-box in Microtidae. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1999, 86: 46-50. 10.1159/000015428.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Premi S, Srivastava J, Chandy SP, Ahmad J, Ali S: Tandom duplication and copy number polymorphism of the SRY gene in patients with sex chromosome anomalies and males exposed to natural background radiation. Mol Hum Reprod. 2006, 12: 113-121. 10.1093/molehr/gal012.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Premi S, Srivastava J, Panneer G, Ali S: Startling mosaicism of the Y-chromosome and tandem duplication of the SRY and DAZ genes in patients with turner syndrome. PLoS One. 2008, 3: e3796-10.1371/journal.pone.0003796.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Turner ME, Martin C, Martins AS, Dunmire J, Farkas J, Ely DL, Milsted A: Genomic and expression analysis of multiple Sry loci from a single Rattus norvegicus Y chromosome. BMC Genet. 2007, 8: 11-PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Turner ME, Farkas J, Dunmire J, Ely D, Milsted A: Which Sry locus is the hypertensive Y chromosome locus?. Hypertension. 2009, 53: 430-435. 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.108.124131.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Prokop JW, Watanabe IKM, Turner ME, Underwood AC, Martins A, Milsted A: From rat to human, regulation of renin-angiotensin system genes by Sry. Int J Hypertens. 2012, 2012: 724240-PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sudbeck Scherer P: Two independent nuclear localization signals are present in the DNA-binding high-mobility group domains of SRY and SOX9. J Biol Chem. 1997, 272: 27848-27852. 10.1074/jbc.272.44.27848.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sim H, Rimmer K, Kelly S, Ludbrook LM, Clayton AHA, Harley VR: Defective calmodulin-mediated nuclear transport of the sex-determining region of the Y chromosome (SRY) in XY sex reversal. Mol Endocrinol. 2005, 19: 1884-1892. 10.1210/me.2004-0334.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ely DL, Turner ME: Hypertension in the spontaneously hypertensive rat is linked to the Y chromosome. Hypertension. 1990, 16: 277-281. 10.1161/01.HYP.16.3.277.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ely DL, Daneshvar , Turner ME, Johnson ML, Salisbury RL: The hypertensive Y chromosome elevates blood pressure in the F11 normotensive rats. Hypertension. 1993, 21: 1071-1075. 10.1161/01.HYP.21.6.1071.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Turner ME, Ely D, Prokop J, Milsted A: Sry, more than testis determination?. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2011, 301: R561-R571. 10.1152/ajpregu.00645.2010.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ely D, Milsted A, Dunphy G, Boehme S, Dunmire J, Hart M, Toot J, Martins A, Turner M: Delivery of Sry1, but not Sry2, to the kidney increases blood pressure and sns indices in normotensive wky rats. BMC Physiol. 2009, 9: 10-10.1186/1472-6793-9-10.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ely D, Boehme S, Dunphy G, Hart M, Chiarappa F, Miller B, Martins AS, Turner M, Milsted A: The Sry3 Y chromosome locus elevates blood pressure and renin-angiotensin system indexes. Gend Med. 2011, 8: 126-138. 10.1016/j.genm.2010.11.014.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tchenio T, Casella Heidmann JT: Members of the SRY family regulate the human LINE retrotransposons. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000, 28: 411-415. 10.1093/nar/28.2.411.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sudbeck P, Scherer G: Two independent nuclear localization signals are present in the DNA-binding high-mobility group domains of SRY and SOX9. J Biol Chem. 1997, 272: 27848-27852. 10.1074/jbc.272.44.27848.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Harley VR, Lovell-Badge R, Goodfellow PN, Hextall PJ: The HMG box of SRY is a calmodulin binding domain. FEBS Lett. 1996, 391: 24-28. 10.1016/0014-5793(96)00694-1.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hanover JA, Love DC, Prinz WA: Calmodulin-driven nuclear entry: trigger for sex determination and terminal differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2009, 284: 12593-12597. 10.1074/jbc.R800076200.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kaur G, Delluc-Clavieres A, Poon IK, Forwood JK, Glover DJ, Jans DA: Calmodulin-dependent nuclear import of HMG-box family nuclear factors: Importance of the role of SRY in sex reversal. Biochem J. 2010, 430: 39-48. 10.1042/BJ20091758.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Prokop JW, Leeper TC, Duan ZH, Milsted A: Amino acid function and docking site prediction through combining disease variants, structure alignments, sequence alignments, and molecular dynamics: a study of the HMG domain. BMC Bioinforma. 2012, 13 (Suppl 2): S3-Google Scholar
- Lundberg Y, Ritzen M, Harlin J, Wedell A: Novel missense mutation (P131R) in the HMG box of SRY in XY sex reversal. Hum Mutat. 1998, 11 (Suppl 1): S328-S329.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Forwood JK, Harley V, Jans DA: The C-terminal nuclear localization signal of the sex-determining region Y (SRY) high mobility group domain mediated nuclear import through importin beta 1. J Biol Chem. 2001, 276: 46575-46582. 10.1074/jbc.M101668200.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Oh HJ, Li Y, Lau YF: Sry associated with the heterochromatin protein 1 complex by interacting with a KRAB domain protein. Biol Reprod. 2005, 72: 407-415. 10.1095/biolreprod.104.034447.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Peng H, Ivanov AV, Oh HJ, Lau YF, Rauscher FJ: Epigenetic gene silencing by the SRY protein is mediated by a KRAB-O protein that recruits the KAP1 co-repressor machinery. J Biol Chem. 2009, 284: 35670-35680. 10.1074/jbc.M109.032086.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sanchez-Moreno I, Coral Vazquez R, Mendez JP, Canto P: Full-length SRY protein is essential for DNA binding. Mol Hum Reprod. 2008, 14: 325-330. 10.1093/molehr/gan021.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Desclozeaux M, Poulat F, de Santa Barbara P, Capony JP, Turowski P, Jap P, Mejean C, Moniot B, Boizet B, Berta P: Phosphorylation of an N-terminal motif enhances DNA-binding activity of the human SRY protein. J Biol Chem. 1998, 273: 7988-7995. 10.1074/jbc.273.14.7988.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Domenice S, Yumie Nishi M, Correia Billerbeck AE, Latronico AC, Aparecida Medeiros M, Russell AJ, Vass K, Marino Carvalho F, Costa Frade EM, Prado Arnhold IJ, Bilharinho Mendonca B: A novel missense mutation (S18N) in the 5' non-HMG box region of the SRY gene in a patient with partial gonadal dysgenesis and his normal male relatives. Hum Genet. 1998, 102: 213-215. 10.1007/s004390050680.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Smit AFA, Hubley R, Green P: RepeatMasker Open-3.0. 1996, http://www.repeatmasker.org, –2010,Google Scholar
- Sievers F, Wilm A, Dineen DG, Gibson TJ, Karplus K, Li W, Lopez R, McWilliam H, Remmert M, Söding J, Thompson JD, Higgins D: Fast, scalable generation of high-quality protein multiple sequence alignments using Clustal Omega. Mol Syst Biol. 2011, 7: 539-PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tamura K, Peterson D, Peterson N, Stecher G, Nei M, Kumar S: MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Mol Biol Evol. 2011, 28: 2731-2739. 10.1093/molbev/msr121.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Phillips NB, Jancso-Radek A, Ittah V, Singh R, Chan G, Haas E, Weiss MA: SRY and human sex determination: the basic tail of the HMG Box functions as a kinetic clamp to augment DNA bending. J Mol Biol. 2006, 358: 172-192. 10.1016/j.jmb.2006.01.060.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Roy A, Kucukural A, Zhang Y: I-TASSER: a unified platform for automated protein structure and function prediction. Nat Protoc. 2010, 5: 725-738. 10.1038/nprot.2010.5.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Murphy EC, Zhurkin VB, Louis JM, Cornilescu G, Clore GM: Structural basis for SRY-dependent 46-X, Y sex reversal: modulation of DNA bending by a naturally occurring point mutation. J Mol Biol. 2001, 312: 481-499. 10.1006/jmbi.2001.4977.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Krieger E, Darden T, Nabuurs SB, Finkelstein A, Vriend G: Making optimal use of empirical energy functions: force-field parameterization in crystal space. Proteins. 2004, 57: 678-683. 10.1002/prot.20251.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Duan Y, Wu C, Chowdhury S, Lee MC, Xiong G, Zhang W, Yang R, Cieplak P, Luo R, Lee T, Caldwell J, Wang Kollman J: A point-charge force field for molecular mechanics simulations of proteins based on condensed-phase quantum mechanical calculations. J Comput Chem. 2003, 24: 1999-2012. 10.1002/jcc.10349.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Xu D, Zhang Y: Ab initio protein structure assembly using continuous structure fragments and optimized knowledge-based force fields. Proteins. 2012, 80: 1715-1735.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.